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DEF CON 26 Hacking Conference



Detecting Blue Team Research Through Targeted Ads

Saturday at 13:30 in Track 2
20 minutes |

0x200b Hacker

When my implant gets discovered how will I know? Did the implant stop responding for some benign reason or is the IR team responding? With any luck they'll upload the sample somewhere public so I can find it, but what if I can find out if they start looking for specific bread crumbles in public data sources? At some point without any internal data all blue teams turn to OSINT which puts their searches within view of the advertising industry. In this talk I will detail how I was able to use online advertising to detect when a blue team is hot on my trail.

I'm just a Security researcher who's always using tools in unintended ways. I'm a defender by trade, I work on understating the adversary then designing the mitigations based on what I've learned. Currently I work at the intersection of healthcare and the cloud, designing systems that make it harder for the adversary to operate.

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Hacking PLCs and Causing Havoc on Critical Infrastructures

Saturday at 11:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Thiago Alves Ph.D. Student and Graduate Research Assistant at the University of Alabama in Huntsville

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are devices used on a variety of industrial plants, from small factories to critical infrastructures like nuclear power plants, dams and wastewater systems. Although PLCs were made robust to sustain tough environments, little care was taken to raise defenses against potential cyber threats. As a consequence, threats started pouring in and causing havoc. During this presentation I will talk about the architecture of a PLC and how it can be p0wned. There will be some live demonstration attacks against 3 different brands of PLCs (if the demo demons allow it, if not I will just show a video). Additionally, I will demonstrate two vulnerabilities I recently discovered, affecting the Rockwell MicroLogix 1400 series and the Schneider Modicon M221 controllers.

Thiago Alves
Thiago Alves received his B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the"Pontifícia Universidade Católica" (PUC) in 2013. In 2014 he created OpenPLC, the world's first open source industrial controller. OpenPLC is being used as a valuable tool for control system research and education. The OpenPLC project has contributions from several universities and private companies, such as Johns Hopkins and FreeWave Technologies. In 2017 Thiago won first place in CSAW, the world's largest student-run cybersecurity competition, with his innovative embedded security solution for OpenPLC. Currently Thiago is a Ph.D. student at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. His research interests include cybersecurity for SCADA systems, industrial controllers and embedded systems.

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Asura: A huge PCAP file analyzer for anomaly packets detection using massive multithreading

Sunday at 13:30 in Track 1
20 minutes | Tool

Ruo Ando Center for Cybersecurity Research and Development, National Institute of Informatics, Japan

Recently, the inspection of huge traffic log is imposing a great burden on security analysts. Unfortunately, there have been few research efforts focusing on scalablility in analyzing very large PCAP file with reasonable computing resources. Asura is a portable and scalable PCAP file analyzer for detecting anomaly packets using massive multithreading. Asura's parallel packet dump inspection is based on task-based decomposition and therefore can handle massive threads for large PCAP file without considering tidy parameter selection in adopting data decomposition. Asura is designed to scale out in processing large PCAP file by taking as many threads as possible.

Asura takes two steps. First, Asura extracts feature vector represented by associative containers of <sourceIP, destIP> pair. By doing this, the feature vector can be drastically small compared with the size of original PCAP files. In other words, Asura can reduce packet dump data into the size of unique <sourceIP, destIP> pairs (for example, in experiment, Asura's output which is reduced in first step is about 2% compared with the size of original libpcap files). Second, a parallel clustering algorithm is applied for the feature vector which is represented as {<sourceIP, destIP>, V[i]} where V[i] is aggregated flow vector. In second step, Asura adopts an enhanced Kmeans algorithm. Concretely, two functions of Kmeans which are (1)calculating distance and (2)relabeling points are improved for parallel processing.

In experiment, in processing public PCAP datasets, Asura can identified 750 packets which are labeled as malicious from among 70 million (about 18GB) normal packets. In a nutshell, Asura successfully found 750 malicious packets in about 18GB packet dump. For Asura to inspect 70 million packets, it took reasonable computing time of around 350-450 minutes with 1000-5000 multithreading by running commodity workstation. Asura will be released under MIT license and available at author's GitHub site on the first day of DEF CON 26.

Ruo Ando
Ruo Ando is associate professor of NII (National Institute of Informatics) by special appointment in Japan. He has Ph.D of computer science. Before joining NII, he was engaged in research project supported by US AFOSR in 2003 (Grant Number AOARD 03-4049). He has presented his researches in PacSec2011 (BitTorrent crawler) and GreHack2013 (DNS security). He was co-presenter of SysCan2009 and FrHack2009 (Virtual machine instrospection). His current research interest is network security.

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One bite and all your dreams will come true: Analyzing and Attacking Apple Kernel Drivers

Sunday at 14:00 in Track 3
45 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit

Xiaolong Bai Security Engineer, Alibaba Inc.

Min (Spark) Zheng Security Expert, Alibaba Inc.

Though many security mechanisms are deployed in Apple's macOS and iOS systems, some old-fashioned or poor-quality kernel code still leaves the door widely open to attackers. Especially, as kernel's critical components, device drivers are frequently exploited to attack Apple systems. In fact, bug hunting in Apple kernel drivers is not easy since they are mostly closed-source and heavily relying on object-oriented programming. In this talk, we will share our experience of analyzing and attacking Apple kernel drivers. In specific, we will introduce a new tool called Ryuk. Ryuk employs static analysis techniques to discover bugs by itself or assist manual review.

In addition, we further combine static analysis with dynamic fuzzing for bug hunting in Apple drivers. In specific, we will introduce how we integrate Ryuk to the state-of-art Apple driver fuzzer, PassiveFuzzFrameworkOSX, for finding exploitable bugs.

Most importantly, we will illustrate Ryuk's power with several new vulnerabilities that are recently discovered by Ryuk. In specific, we will show how we exploit these vulnerabilities for privilege escalation on macOS 10.13.3 and 10.13.2. We will not only explain why these bugs occur and how we find them, but also demonstrate how we exploit them with innovative kernel exploitation techniques.

Xiaolong Bai
Xiaolong Bai (twitter@bxl1989, github@bxl1989) is a security engineer in Alibaba Orion Security Lab. Before joining Alibaba, he received his Ph.D. degree in Tsinghua University. He has published several research papers on top conferences including IEEE S&P, Usenix Security, CCS, NDSS, and presented his research in Black Hat USA and Hack In The Box. He has been acknowledged by famous vendors, including Apple, Google, Facebook, Evernote, and Tencent for his contribution in discovering the vulnerabilities in their systems and improving the security of their products. He is a member of the OverSky team for private jailbreaking development.


Min (Spark) Zheng
Min (Spark) Zheng (twitter@SparkZheng, github@zhengmin1989) is a security expert in Alibaba Orion Security Lab. He received his Ph.D. degree in the CSE department of the CUHK. His research focuses on malware analysis, smartphone (Android & iOS) security, system design and implementation. Before receiving Alibaba A-Star offer award in 2015, he worked in FireEye, Baidu and Tencent. He was the champion of GeekPwn 2014 and AliCTF 2015. He won the"best security researcher" award in FIT 2016 for detecting the iOS/macOS vulnerabilities, XcodeGhost virus and WormHole RCE vulnerability. He is a member of the OverSky team for private jailbreaking development. He presented his research in DEF CON, HITB, BlackHat, RUXCON, etc.


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You may have paid more than you imagine—Replay Attacks on Ethereum Smart Contracts

Saturday at 10:00 in Track 3
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Zhenxuan Bai Freelance Security Researcher

Yuwei Zheng Senior Security Researcher, Unicorn Team, 360 Technology

Senhua Wang Freelance Security Researcher

Kunzhe Chai Leader of PegasusTeam at 360 Radio Security Research Department, 360 Technology

In this paper, a new replay attack based on Ethereum smart contracts is presented. In the token transfer, the risk of replay attack cannot be completely avoided when the sender's signatures are abused, which can bring the loss to users. And the reason is that the applying scope of the signatures is not properly designed in the smart contracts. To test and verify this loophole, we selected two similar smart contracts for our experiment, at the same time, we used our own accounts in these two contracts to carry out the experiment. Because the same signatures of the two contracts were used in the experiment, we got a double income from sender successfully. The experiment verified that the replay attack is really exist. Besides, the replay attack may exist in multiple smart contracts. We calculated the number of smart contracts with this loophole, as well as the corresponding transaction activities, which find some Ethereum smart contracts are risked for this loophole. According to the vulnerability of the contract signature, the risk level is calibrated and depicted. Furthermore, the replay attack pattern is extended to within contract, cross contract and cross chain, which provide the pertinence and well reference for protection. Finally, the countermeasures are proposed to fix this vulnerability.

Zhenxuan Bai
Zhenxuan Bai is a freelance Security Researcher interests in smart contract and blockchain, consultant of UnicornTeam. He is a co-researcher of the decryption blackberry project, which manage to decrypt Blackberry BBM, PIN message and BIS secure mail without keys.

Yuwei Zheng
Yuwei Zheng is a senior security researcher at Radio Security Department of 360 Technology, core member of UnicornTeam. He cracked the protocols of Blackberry BBM, PIN message, BIS secure mail, and successfully decrypted the messages without keys. He is currently focusing on the security research of cellular network, IoT system, and mobile baseband. He had presented his research works at top level security conferences like BlackHat, DEF CON, HITB etc.

Senhua Wang
Senhua Wang is a freelance Security Researcher interested in smart contract and blockchain, consultant of UnicornTeam

Kunzhe Chai
Leader of PegasusTeam at 360 Radio Security Research Department in 360 Technology. He focuses on wireless security, including attack-defense research. He is the person in charge of the attack and defense technology of Skyscan Wireless Intrusion and Prevention System, One of the authors of the well-known wireless security tool MDK4. He leads his team to share the research results at HITB, HITCON, Blackhat, China ISC etc.


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What the Fax!?

Sunday at 15:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit, Audience Participation

Yaniv Balmas Security Researcher, Check Point Software Technologies

Eyal Itkin Security Researcher, Check Point Software Technologies

Unless you've been living under a rock for the past 30 years or so, you probably know what a fax machine is. For decades, fax machines were used worldwide as the main way of electronic document delivery. But this happened in the 1980s. Humanity has since developed far more advanced ways to send digital content, and fax machines are all in the past, right? After all, they should now be nothing more than a glorified museum item. Who on earth is still using fax machines?

The answer, to our great horror, is EVERYONE. State authorities, banks, service providers and many others are still using fax machines, despite their debatable quality and almost non-existent security. In fact, using fax machines is often mandatory and considered a solid and trustworthy method of delivering information.

What the Fax?! We embarked on a journey with the singular goal of disrupting this insane state of affairs. We went to work, determined to show that the common fax machine could be compromised via mere access to its fully exposed and unprotected telephone line -- thus completely bypassing all perimeter security protections and shattering to pieces all modern-day security concepts.

Join us as we take you through the strange world of embedded operating systems, 30-year-old protocols, museum grade compression algorithms, weird extensions and undebuggable environments. See for yourself first-hand as we give a live demonstration of the first ever full fax exploitation, leading to complete control over the entire device as well as the network, using nothing but a standard telephone line.

This talk is intended to be the canary in the coal mine. The technology community cannot sit idly by while this ongoing madness is allowed to continue. The world must stop using FAX!

Yaniv Balmas
Yaniv Balmas is a software engineer and a seasoned professional in the security field. He wrote his very first piece of code in BASIC on the new Commodore-64 he got for his 8th birthday. As a teenager, he spent his time looking for ways to hack computer games and break BBS software. This soon led to diving into more serious programming, and ultimately, the security field where he has been ever since. Yaniv is currently leading the security research group at Check Point Software Technologies where he deals mainly with analyzing malware and vulnerability research.


Eyal Itkin
Eyal Itkin is a vulnerability researcher in the Malware and Vulnerability Research group at Check Point Software Technologies. Eyal has an extensive background in security research, that includes years of experience in embedded network devices and protocols, bug bounties from all popular interpreter languages, and an award by Microsoft for his CFG enhancement white paper. When not breaking PTP or I2P, he loves bouldering, swimming, and thinking about the next target for his research.


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Rock appround the clock: Tracking malware developers by Android "AAPT" timezone disclosure bug

Sunday at 10:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo

Sheila A. Berta Security Researcher at Eleven Paths

Sergio De Los Santos Head of Innovation and Lab at Eleven Paths

Are you a malware developer for Android devices? We have very bad news for you: the Android-SDK packager (aapt) is leaking your time zone! We have found a bug inside this Android-SDK's component that relies in not properly setting the value of a variable used as an argument for localtime() function, when setting the "Last Modified" field for the Android App's files. Because of this, the time zone of anyone using the Android-SDK packager to generate their APKs is leaked. The curious thing is that, despite of this bug inside aapt, the problem goes even beyond aapt itself: its roots goes deep into an incorrect handling errors in the operative system functions localtime() (Windows) and localtime_r() (UNIX).

Because of in the world of Threat Intelligence determining the attacker's geographical location of is one of the most valuable data for attribution techniques, we focused our research in taking advantage of this bug for tracking Android malware developers. In addition to this, we have discovered another very effective way to find out the developer's time zone, based on a calculation of times extracting the GMT timestamp from the Android's app files and the UTC timestamp of the self-signed,"disposable" certificate added to the application (most common cases in malware developers). This is what we call: Rock appround the clock! Using these two different techniques, we have crunched some numbers with our 10 million apps database to determine how these leaked time zones (with one or another technique) are related with malware and which are the countries that generate more Android malicious applications, what is the possible relation between time zone and"malware likelihood" among other interesting numbers.

But that's not all, we have another bad news for malware developers: no IDE (even Android Studio) removes metadata from the files added to the Android app. We will show examples with real cases in which, after analyzing the metadata of files inside the .apk, we got to know country, language, or even more specific geographical location of the developer and -in some cases- the name of the suppose-to-be-anonymous developer! Finally, we will share the scripts we have built to get all this information with just a simple click.

Sheila A. Berta
Sheila Ayelen Berta is an Information Security Specialist and Developer, who started at 12 years-old by herself. At the age of 15, she wrote her first book about Web Hacking, published by RedUSERS Editorial in several countries. Over the years, she has discovered lots of vulnerabilities in popular web applications, softwares and given courses of Hacking Techniques in universities and private institutes. Sheila currently works at Eleven Paths as Security Researcher who specializes in offensive techniques, reverse engineering and exploit writing. She is also a developer in ASM (microcontrollers, x32/x64), C/C++ and Python. Sheila is an international speaker who has spoken at important security conferences such as Black Hat EU 2017, DEF CON 25 CHV, HITBSecConf, Ekoparty Security Conference, IEEE ArgenCon, Hack.Lu, OWASP Latam Tour and others.


Sergio De Los Santos
Sergio De Los Santos is currently head of innovation and labs in Eleven Paths, responsible for researching, creating new projects, tools and prototypes. In the past (2005-2013), he was a Technical consultant in Hispasec (where VirusTotal was developed for 10 years), responsible for antifraud, vulnerabilities alert and other services mostly bank industry oriented. Sergio is responsible for the most veteran security newsletter in spanish. Since 2000 he has worked as an auditor and technical coordinator, written three technical security books and one about the history of security. He has an informatics degree, a master in software engineering and artificial intelligence and has been awarded with Microsoft MVP Consumer Security title in 2013-2017. He is a teacher and director of different courses, masters and lectures in universities and private companies.


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Ring 0/-2 Rootkits: bypassing defenses

Thursday at 12:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes |

Alexandre Borges Malware and Security Researcher at Blackstorm Security

Advanced malware such as TDL4, Rovnix, Gapz, Omasco, Mebromi and others have exposed in recent years various techniques used to circumvent the usual defenses and have shown how much companies are not prepared to deal with these sophisticated threats.

Although the industry has implemented new protections such as Virtualized Based Security, Windows SMM Security Mitigation Table (WSMT), Kernel Code Signing, HVCI, ELAM, Secure Boot, Boot Guard, BIOS Guard, and many others, it is still unknown the professionals of the architecture of these protections, what are the components attacked by these contemporary malwares in the context of BIOS / UEFI and what are the tricks used by them. Precisely because of the lack of adequate understanding, most machines (BIOS / UEFI + operating system) remain vulnerable in the same way as a few years ago.

In addition, there are a growing number of malwares that have used kernel drivers to circumvent limitations and protections in order to gain full access to the operating system and data. Exactly for these reasons, it is necessary to understand the way that malwares act as device drivers and what are the mechanisms used by these threats to infect an operating system.

The purpose of this presentation is to show clearly and without too much details that often hinders understanding, how these threats act, which components are attacked, what are the techniques used by these advanced malware to subvert the system and how existing protections work .

Alexandre Borges
Alexandre has been working as Malware and Security researcher at Blackstorm Security, where he is daily involved with malware analysis cases, forensic and fraud investigations, reverse engineering and exploit development projects. In the past, Alexandre worked as instructor at Sun Microsystems for ten years and Symantec for six years.

Nowadays, he is reviewer of"The Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law", referee on "Digital Investigation—The International Journal of Digital Forensics & Incident Response" and member of the Digital Law and Compliance Committee at OAB/SP.

Slides and articles written by Alexandre are available on:


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Trouble in the tubes: How internet routing security breaks down and how you can do it at home

Sunday at 13:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

Lane Broadbent Security Engineer, Vivint

We all protect our home networks, but how safe is your data once it leaves on its journey to the latest cat pictures? How does your traffic make it to its destination and what threats does it face on its way? What is BGP and why should you care?

In this talk, I'll explain the basic structure of the network that is the Internet and the trust relationships on which it is built. We'll explore several types of attacks that you may have seen in the news that exploit this relationship to bring down websites, steal cryptocurrency, and monitor dissidents.

Because talking about bringing down the Internet isn't as much fun as doing, I'll show how to create a mini Internet using Mininet and demonstrate the attacks without the need for a BGP router or a lawyer. Finally, because nation states shouldn't get to have all the fun, I'll use Scapy and some novel techniques to demonstrate how a compromised router can be used to prevent attribution, frame a friend, or create a covert communication channel.

Lane Broadbent
Lane Broadbent is a Security Engineer performing threat hunting and full stack security engineering for Vivint, a tech company focused on IoT and home security. With over a decade of experience in research, pen testing, and jack of all trades systems administration, Lane now works to secure IoT devices and the systems that interact with them. In his free time, Lane tries to best the corporate NTP pool with parts salvaged from thrift stores.

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Last mile authentication problem: Exploiting the missing link in end-to-end secure communication

Sunday at 12:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Thanh Bui Security Researcher, Aalto University, Finland

Siddharth Rao Security Researcher, Aalto University, Finland

With "Trust none over the Internet" mindset, securing all communication between a client and a server with protocols such as TLS has become a common practice. However, while the communication over Internet is routinely secured, there is still an area where such security awareness is not seen: inside individual computers, where adversaries are often not expected.

This talk discusses the security of various inter-process communication (IPC) mechanisms that local processes and applications use to interact with each other. In particular, we show IPC-related vulnerabilities that allow a non-privileged process to steal passwords stored in popular password managers and even second factors from hardware tokens. With passwords being the primary way of authentication, the insecurity of this "last mile" causes the security of the rest of the communication strands to be obsolete. The vulnerabilities that we demonstrate can be exploited on multi-user computers that may have processes of multiple users running at the same time. The attacker is a non-privileged user trying to steal sensitive information from other users. Such computers can be found in enterprises with centralized access control that gives multiple users access to the same host. Computers with guest accounts and shared computers at home are similarly vulnerable.

Thanh Bui
Thanh Bui is a doctoral candidate in the"Secure systems" group of Aalto University, Finland. His research focuses on analyzing and designing secure network protocols and distributed systems. He is a past Erasmus Mundus fellow and holds double master's degrees from Aalto University, Finland and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.

Siddharth Rao
Siddharth (Sid) Rao is a doctoral candidate in the"Secure systems" group of Aalto University, Finland. He specializes in the security analysis of communication protocols, and his current interest lies in pedagogical study of the 'lack of authentication' in different systems. He is a past Erasmus Mundus fellow and holds double master's degrees from Aalto University, Finland and University of Tartu, Estonia. He has been Ford-Mozilla Open Web Fellow at European Digital Rights (EDRi), where helped to define policies related to data protection, surveillance, copyright, and network neutrality. He has previous spoken at security conferences such as Blackhat and Troopers.

Markku Antikainen received the M.Sc. degrees in security and mobile computing from Aalto University, Espoo, Finland, and the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, in 2011. In 2017, he received a Ph.D. degree from Aalto University, Espoo, Finland. His doctoral thesis was on the security of Internet-of-things and software-defined networking. He currently works as a post-doctoral researcher at Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, Finland

Tuomas Aura received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland, in 1996 and 2000, respectively. His doctoral thesis was on authorization and availability in distributed systems. He is a Professor of computer science and engineering with Aalto University, Espoo, Finland. Before joining Aalto University, he worked with Microsoft Research, Cambridge, U.K. He is interested in network and computer security and the security analysis of new technologies.

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Reverse Engineering Windows Defender's Emulator

Saturday at 15:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

Alexei Bulazel Hacker

Windows Defender Antivirus's mpengine.dll implements the core of Defender's functionality in an enormous ~11 MB, 30,000+ function DLL.

In this presentation, we'll look at Defender's emulator for analysis of potentially malicious Windows binaries on the endpoint. To the best of my knowledge, there has never been a conference talk or publication on reverse engineering any antivirus binary emulator before.

We'll cover a range of topics including emulator internals—machine code to intermediate language translation and execution; memory management; Windows API emulation; NT kernel emulation; file system and registry emulation; integration with Defender's antivirus features; the virtual environment; etc.—building custom tooling for instrumenting the emulator; tricks that binaries can use to evade or subvert analysis; and attack surface within the emulator.

Attendees will leave with an understanding of how modern antivirus software conducts emulation-based dynamic analysis on the endpoint, and how attackers might go about subverting or attacking these systems. I'll publish code for a binary for exploring the emulator from within, patches that I developed for instrumenting Defender built on top of Tavis Ormandy's loadlibrary project, and IDA scripts to help with analyzing mpengine.dll and Defender's "VDLLs"

Alexei Bulazel
Alexei Bulazel (@0xAlexei) is a security researcher at ForAllSecure. He also provides expertise on reverse engineering and cyber policy at River Loop Security. Alexei has previously presented his research at venues such as Black Hat, REcon, and ShmooCon, among many others, and has published scholarly work at USENIX WOOT and ROOTS. Alexei is a proud alumnus of RPISEC.


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A Journey Into Hexagon: Dissecting a Qualcomm Baseband

Thursday at 13:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes |

Seamus Burke Hacker

Mobile phones are quite complicated and feature multiple embedded processors handling wifi, cellular connectivity, bluetooth, and other signal processing in addition to the application processor. Have you ever been curious about how your phone actually makes calls and texts on a low level? Or maybe you want to learn more about the internals of the baseband but have no clue where to start. We will dive into the internals of a qualcomm baseband, tracing it's evolution over the years until its current state. We will discuss the custom, in-house DSP architecture they now run on, and the proprietary RTOS running on it. We will also cover the architecture of the cellular stack, likely places vulnerabilities lie, and exploit mitigations in place. Finally we will cover debugging possibilities, and how to get started analyzing the baseband firmware—how to differentiate between RTOS and cellular functions, how to find C std library functions, and more.

Seamus Burke
Seamus Burke is an undergraduate student at UMBC pursing a degree in CS, he has been working in the security field field since he was 16 and has held a variety of positions from SOC analyst to malware analyst, to vulnerability researcher. Currently his research focus is on cellular baseband and kernel rootkits. When he's not staring at IDA, he likes to spend his time wrenching on cars and racing.


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Relocation Bonus: Attacking the Windows Loader Makes Analysts Switch Careers

Saturday at 17:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

Nick Cano Senior Security Architect @ Cylance

The arbiters of defense wield many static analysis tools; disassemblers, PE viewers, and anti-viruses are among them. When you peer into their minds, these tools reveal their perilous implementations of PE file parsing. They assume PE files come as-is, but the Windows Loader actually applies many mutations (some at the command of the PE itself) before execution ever begins. This talk is about bending that loader to one's whim with the Relocations Table as a command spell. It will demonstrate how the loader can be instrumented into a mutation engine capable of transforming an utterly mangled PE file into a valid executable. This method starts with multiple ASLR Preselection attacks that force binary mapping at a predictable address. It then mangles the PE file, garbling any byte not required prior to relocation. Finally, it embeds a new Relocations Table which, when paired with a preselected base address, causes the loader to reconstruct the PE and execute it with ease. This isn't a packer or a POC, it is a PE rebuilder which generates completely valid, stable, and vastly tool-breaking executables. This talk will show you how this attack twists the protocols of a machine against the controls meant to protect it. It flexes on tools with various look-what-I-can-break demonstrations and, if you write similar tools, it'll make you rethink how you do it.

Nick Cano
Nick is a self-taught software engineer, hacker, and an avid CTFer. He started coding when he was 11 and planted his roots in video game hacking by 14. His game hacking endeavors lead to a profitable business which became the foothold for his career. Nick is the author of"Game Hacking: Developing Autonomous Bots for Online Games," and has spoken about topics such as malware analysis, Windows internals, game hacking, and memory forensics at DEF CON, DerbyCon, HOPE, and other prestigious conferences. Previously a Senior Engineer at Bromium and currently a Senior Architect at Cylance, he's using his Windows internals experience to help make advances with endpoint protection, detection, and response.,,

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Project Interceptor: avoiding counter-drone systems with nanodrones

Saturday at 15:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo, Tool, Audience Participation

David Melendez Cano R&D Embedded Systems Engineer. Albalá Ingenieros S.A.

Antidrone system industries have arised. Due to several, and even classic, vulnerabilities in communication systems now used by drones , anti-drone systems are able to take down those drone by means of well documented attacks.

Drone/antidrone competition has already been set into the scene. This talk provides a new vision about drone protection against anti-drone systems, presenting "The Interceptor Project", a hand-sized nano drone based on single-core tiniest Linux Board: Vocore2.

This Linux board manages a WiFi (side/hidden) bidirectional channel communication that cannot be deauthenticated and it is replay-resistant, keeping all 802.11 hacking capabilities and standard utilities as any other WiFi hacker drone, with only the built-in adapter of the tiny Vocore2. Also, a "just in case", fallback control by SDR is implemented taking advantage of all the goods that SDR radio gives. All embedded into a hand-sized aircraft to make detection and mitigation a real and new pain, with a very low budget: About $70.

David Melendez Cano
David Melendez Cano, Spain, works as R&D software engineer for TV Studio manufacturer company, Albalá Ingenieros S.A. in Madrid. He has won several prices in robotic contests and he has been a speaker at Nuit Du Hack, RootedCON, NoConName, Codemotion, HKOSCON, etc. Author of the book "Hacking con Drones" and robot builder.


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You'd better secure your BLE devices or we'll kick your butts !

Saturday at 12:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit

Damien "virtualabs" Cauquil Head of Research & Development, Digital Security

Sniffing and attacking Bluetooth Low Energy devices has always been a real pain. Proprietary tools do the job but cannot be tuned to fit our offensive needs, while opensource tools work sometimes, but are not reliable and efficient. Even the recently released Man-in-the-Middle BLE attack tools have their limits, like their complexity and lack of features to analyze encrypted or short connections.

Furthermore, as vendors do not seem inclined to improve the security of their devices by following the best practices, we decided to create a tool to lower the ticket: BtleJack. BtleJack not only provides an affordable and reliable way to sniff and analyze Bluetooth Low Energy devices and their protocol stacks, but also implements a brand new attack dubbed "BtleJacking" that provides a way to take control of any already connected BLE device.

We will demonstrate how this attack works on various devices, how to protect them and avoid hijacking and of course release the source code of the tool.

Vendors, be warned: BLE hijacking is real and should be considered in your threat model.

Damien "virtualabs" Cauquil
Damien is a senior security researcher who joined Digital Security in 2015 as the head of research and development. He discovered how wireless protocols can be fun to hack and quickly developed BtleJuice, one of the first Bluetooth Low Energy MitM framework.

Damien presented at various security conferences including DEF CON, Hack In Paris, Chaos Communication Camp, Chaos Communication Congress, and a dozen times at Nuit du Hack, one of the oldest security conference.

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Building the Hacker Tracker

Thursday at 15:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
20 minutes |

Whitney Champion Senior Systems Engineer

Seth Law Application Security Consultant, Redpoint Security

In 2012, back when DEF CON still fit in the Riviera (RIP), I recognized a gap to fill. I wanted to create a mobile version of the paper DEF CON booklet that everyone could use at the con.

I was unable to attend the conference that year. I was 8 months pregnant with my first child, and because I couldn't be there in person, I spent a lot of time wishing I was.

So I built it. I spent countless hours pouring my heart into what became the Hacker Tracker, shiny graphics and all, and was committing code up until the minute I went into labor.

Fast forward a few years: Seth was frustrated with the lack of a mobile app for iOS while attending DEF CON. Subsequently, he found the Android version of Hacker Tracker and reached out to me about creating an iOS version. I was thrilled that someone wanted to join me and help grow the project. Not long after that, I recruited Chris to work on the app as well.

Now, 6 years since its inception, a small team supports the app development across iOS and Android and the apps are being used by half a dozen different conferences, representing several thousand users.

From nothing to something, we've experienced quite a bit in 6 years. Join us as we share our moments of joy, fear, and panic,"things not to do", and more.

Whitney Champion
Whitney is a systems architect in South Carolina. She has held several roles throughout her career- security engineer, systems engineer, mobile developer, cloud architect, consulting architect, to name a few. In the last 15 years, she has worked on operations teams, support teams, development teams, and consulting teams, in both the private and public sector, supporting anywhere from a handful of users to hundreds of thousands. No matter the role, security has always been an area of passion and focus.


Seth Law
Seth is an independent security consultant with Redpoint Security in Salt Lake City, where he performs security research and consulting for a various clients. He spends the majority of his time thinking up ways to exploit and secure applications, but has been known to pull out an IDE as the need arises. Over the course of his career, Seth has honed application security skills using offensive and defensive techniques, including tool development and research. He has an (un)healthy obsession with all things security related and regularly heads down the rabbit hole to research the latest vulnerability or possible exposures. Seth can regularly be found at developer meetups and security get-togethers, whether speaking or learning.


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DEF CON Closing Ceremonies

Sunday at 16:00 in Track 1
105 minutes | Audience Particption

The Dark Tangent

DEF CON Closing Ceremonies

The Dark Tangent

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Outsmarting the Smart City

Saturday at 16:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Daniel "unicornFurnace" Crowley Research Baron, IBM X-Force Red

Mauro Paredes Hacker

Jen "savagejen" Savage Hacker

The term"smart city" evokes imagery of flying cars, shop windows that double as informational touchscreens, and other retro-futuristic fantasies of what the future may hold. Stepping away from the smart city fantasy, the reality is actually much more mundane. Many of these technologies have already quietly been deployed in cities across the world. In this talk, we examine the security of a cross-section of smart city devices currently in use today to reveal how deeply flawed they are and how the implications of these vulnerabilities could have serious consequences.

In addition to discussing newly discovered pre-auth attacks against multiple smart city devices from different categories of smart city technology, this presentation will discuss methods for how to figure out what smart city tech a given city is using, the privacy implications of smart cities, the implications of successful attacks on smart city tech, and what the future of smart city tech may hold.

Daniel "unicornFurnace" Crowley
Daniel has been working in infosec since 2004, is TIME's 2006 Person of the Year, and brews his own beer. Daniel is the primary author of both the Magical Code Injection Rainbow, a configurable vulnerability testbed, and FeatherDuster, an automated cryptanalysis tool.


Mauro Paredes
Mauro has many years of experience performing penetration testing and security assessments for clients in Canada, USA, Germany, Mexico and Venezuela. Mauro has experience across several industries, including finance, telecommunication, e-commerce, technology providers, retail, energy, healthcare, logistics and transportation, government; and education.

Jen "savagejen" Savage
Jennifer Savage has over a decade of experience in tech including penetration testing, vulnerability assessment, vulnerability management, software development, technical management, and consulting services for companies ranging from startups to the Fortune 100.


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DEF CON 101 Panel

Thursday at 15:30 in 101 Track, Flamingo
105 minutes | Audience Participation

HighWiz Founder, DC 101

Nikita Director of Content & Coordination, DEF CON

Roamer CFP Vocal Antagonizer

Chris "Suggy" Sumner Co-Founder, Online Privacy Foundation

Jericho "Squirrel"

Wiseacre Former Doer Of Things

Shaggy The Mountain

Ten years ago, DEF CON 101 was founded by HighWiz as a way to introduce n00bs to DEF CON. The idea was to help attendees get the best experience out of DEF CON (and also tell them how to survive the weekend!). The DEF CON 101 panel has been a way for people who have participated in making DEF CON what it is today to share those experiences and, hopefully, inspire attendees to expand their horizons. DEF CON offers so much more than just talks and the DEF CON 101 panel is the perfect place to learn about all things DEF CON so you, dear reader, can get the best experience possible. The panel will end with the time honored tradition of "Name the n00b" where lucky attendees will be brought up on stage to introduce themselves to you and earn the coveted 101 n00b handle. Don't worry if you don't make it on to the stage, there will be plenty of other prizes for you to enjoy!

HighWiz is born of glitter and moon beams and he has all the right moves. He is the things that sweet dreams are made of and nightmares long to be... Years ago, with the help of some very awesome people*, he set about to create an event that would give the n00bs of DEF CON a place to feel welcomed and further their own pursuit of knowledge. For years he has held onto the simple tenet that "You get out of DEF CON what you put into it". HighWiz is the fabled Man on the Mountain whom people seek to gain a taste of his forbidden knowledge. He is a rare sighting at DEF CON only to be glimpsed by those lucky few. HighWiz is a member of the DEF CON CFP Review Board and Security Tribe.

*Some (but not all) of the people HighWiz would like to thank for helping to make 101 into what it is today : Runnerup, Wiseacre, Nikita, Roamer, Shaggy, Lockheed, Pyr0, Zac, V3rtgio, 1o57, Neil, Sethalump, AlxRogan, Jenn, Zant, MalwareUnicorn, Clutch, TheDarkTangent, Siviak, Ripshy, Valkyrie, Xodia, Flipper and all the members of Security Tribe.


For over 15 years, Nikita has worked to ensure DEF CON runs as smoothly as one can expect from a hacker conference. In addition to planning a vast array of details prior to DEF CON and thwarting issues while onsite, she also serves as the Director of Content for the CFP Review Board.


Appearing in a cloud of (cigarette) smoke, Roamer is a man full of whiskey and ideas. He has appeared at DEF CON since before (almost) the beginning. He is a renown author, speaker, pontificator and is famous for giving the most entertaining Worldwide Wardrive talk. He is also the Grand Vizier of All Things Vendor—you are welcome. When Roamer speaks, people listen. And often fall in love.

Chris "Suggy" Sumner
Chris "Suggy" Sumner is the polite one. He is a co-founder of the not-for-profit Online Privacy Foundation, who contribute to the field of online behavioural research. Suggy is also the CFP review board's undisputed fence sitting champion.


Since 1992, Jericho has been poking about the hacker/security scene. His experience has allowed him to develop (and deliver—often in the form of rants) a great perspective on many topics, mostly security related. He has been a speaker at security conferences worldwide, primarily for the free travel to exotic locales. A founding member of, he was also the content manager for the Open Source Vulnerability Database (OSVDB) and an officer in the Open Security Foundation (OSF). He is a champion of security industry integrity and small misunderstood creatures. He epitomizes the saying, "Why be a pessimist? It won't work, anyway."


Wiseacre was introduced to DEF CON by Roamer. Though he appeared at his first DEF CON because of the Capture the Flag contest, Roamer and HighWiz showed him how to make DEF CON so much more than simply attending the talks. From then on he made a point to participate in as much as he could. Of course, this was all within the limits of social anxiety so, if it allowed participation as a wallflower, he was in! Now, he wants to make sure everyone else gets to know as much as possible about this year's conference. In his private life, Mike hacks managers and is happy anyone listens to him at all.


Shaggy has the Voice of Barry White, the brains of Albert Einstein and the soul of Bea Arthur. He has a few philosophies on life: He believes that while the righteous keep moving forward, those with clean hands become stronger and stronger . That the field of battle between God and Satan is the human soul. It is in the soul that the battle rages every moment of life. He also believes that one should Start by doing what's necessary; then do what's possible; and suddenly you are doing the impossible. Because You learn to speak by speaking, to study by studying, to run by running, to work by working, and just so, you learn to love by loving. All those who think to learn in any other way deceive themselves.

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D0 N0 H4RM: A Healthcare Security Conversation

Friday at 20:00 in Octavius 9
Fireside Hax

Christian"quaddi" Dameff MD Emergency physician, Clinical Informatics fellow at The University of California San Diego.

Jeff "r3plicant" Tully MD Pediatrician, Anesthesiologist, University of California Davis

Kirill Levchenko PhD Associate Professor of Computer Science, University of California San Diego

Beau Woods Hacker

Roberto Suarez Hacker

Jay Radcliffe Hacker

Joshua Corman Hacker

David Nathans Hacker

Healthcare cybersecurity is in critical condition. That's not FUD, that's the bottom line from the Congressionally mandated Health Care Industry Cybersecurity Task Force report released just last year, a year which also saw the twin specters of WannaCry and NotPetya take down entire hospital systems while over half a million implanted pacemakers were recalled in the fallout of one of the most (ir?)responsible disclosures in recent memory. It's enough to make any concerned white hat reach for a stiff drink. And that's where we come in. After an incredibly successful, near-fire-code-violating jam packed session at DC25 as an Evening Lounge, 'D0 N0 H4rm' is diving deeper and going longer as it transforms into a Fireside Hax, assembling an even larger and more distinguished panel of expert hackers, policymakers, wonks, and health care providers to continue discussing, dissecting, and most importantly, debating the ways to keep patients safe in an increasingly perilous space. Featuring continuous audience interaction and with the same loose and informal flow that characterized the initial, libation rich hotel room gatherings, moderators quaddi and r3plicant invite you to add your voice to this incredibly important conversation. Pin this one down quickly, pre-registration is going to go fast.

Christian "quaddi" Dameff MD
Christian (quaddi) Dameff MD is an emergency medicine doctor, former open capture the flag champion, prior DEF CON speaker, and researcher. Published works include topics such as therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest, novel drug targets for myocardial infarction patients, and other Emergency Medicine related works with an emphasis on CPR optimization. Security research topics including hacking critical healthcare infrastructure, medical devices and the effects of malware on patient care. This is his fourteenth DEF CON.


Jeff "r3plicant" Tully MD
Jeff (r3plicant) Tully MD is an anesthesiologist, pediatrician, and researcher with an interest in understanding the ever-growing intersections between healthcare and technology. Prior to medical school he worked on"hacking" the genetic code of Salmonella bacteria to create anti-cancer tools, and throughout medical training has remained involved in the conversations and projects that will secure healthcare and protect our patients as we face a brave new world of remote care, implantable medical devices, and biohacking.


Kirill Levchenko PhD

Beau Woods
Beau Woods is a leader with the I Am The Cavalry grassroots initiative, an Entrepreneur in Residence at the US Food and Drug Administration, a Cyber Safety Innovation Fellow with the Atlantic Council, and Founder/CEO of Stratigos Security. Beau has consulted with Global 100 corporations, the White House, members of Congress, foreign governments, and NGOs on some of the most critical cybersecurity issues of our time. Beau's focus is on Internet of Things (IoT) technologies where cybersecurity intersects public safety and human life issues, including healthcare, automotive, energy, oil and gas, aviation, transportation, and other sectors. Beau is a published author, frequent public speaker, often quoted in media, and is often engaged for public or private speaking venues.

Roberto Suarez
Roberto Suarez is a product security and privacy professional in the medical device and healthcare IT industry. At BD, Roberto is responsible for developing a Product Security Center of Excellence that drives process, capability and maturity to build products that are secure by design with transparency and control in mind. Giving product teams exposure to cyber security training and events, building their in-house expertise and promoting a company-wide community for product security is what Roberto is passionate about.

Jay Radcliffe
Jay Radcliffe is a Senior Security Consultant and Researcher. He is an offensive penetration tester with a knack for hardware hacking and embedded device security. He has given dozens of presentations at conferences around the world including DEF CON and Blackhat including several on the security of insulin pumps.

Joshua Corman
Joshua Corman is a Founder of I am The Cavalry (dot org) and CSO for PTC. Corman previously served as Director of the Cyber Statecraft Initiative for the Atlantic Council, CTO for Sonatype, Director of Security Intelligence for Akamai, and in senior research & strategy roles for The 451 Group and IBM Internet Security Systems. He co-founded RuggedSoftware and IamTheCavalry to encourage new security approaches in response to the world's increasing dependence on digital infrastructure. Josh's unique approach to security in the context of human factors, adversary motivations and social impact has helped position him as one of the most trusted names in security. He also serves as an adjunct faculty for Carnegie Mellon's Heinz College and on the 2016 HHS Cybersecurity Task Force.

David Nathans
David Nathans currently serves as a Product Security Manager for Siemens Healthcare, where he specializes in building cybersecurity programs and Security Operation Centers. Having previously held prominent positions in the defense, retail, managed security and healthcare industries, Nathans has a wealth of cybersecurity knowledge which he shares to help protect companies from this growing threat. His experiences and lessons learned also stem from his time building security programs at one of the largest breached retail companies in history as well as working all over the world as a cyber-operations officer for the U.S. Air Force

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Your Bank's Digital Side Door

Friday at 17:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

Steven Danneman Security Engineer, Security Innovation

Why does my bank's website require my MFA token but Quicken sync does not? How is using Quicken or any personal financial software different from using my bank's website? How are they communicating with my bank? These questions ran through my head when balancing the family checkbook every month.

Answering these questions led me to deeply explore the 20 year old Open Financial Exchange (OFX) protocol and the over 3000 North American banks that support it. They led me to the over 30 different implementations running in the wild and to a broad and inviting attack surface presented by these banks' digital side doors.

Now I'd like to guide you through how your Quicken, QuickBooks,, or even GnuCash applications are gathering your checking account transactions, credit card purchases, stock portfolio, and tax documents. We'll watch them flow over the wire and learn about the jumble of software your bank's IT department deploys to provide them. We'll discuss how secure these systems are, that keep track of your money, and we'll send a few simple packets at several banks and count the number of security WTFs along the way.

Lastly, I'll demo and release a tool that fingerprints an OFX service, describes its capabilities, and assesses its security.

Steven Danneman
Steven Danneman is a Security Engineer at Security Innovation in Seattle, WA, making software more secure through targeted penetration testing. Previously, he lead the development team responsible for all authentication and identity management within the OneFS operating system. Steven is also a finance geek, who opens bank accounts as a hobby and loves a debate about the efficient-market hypothesis.


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Sunday at 15:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Audience Participation

Brent White (B1TK1LL3R) DEF CON Groups Global Coordinator

Jeff Moss (The Dark Tangent) Founder, DEF CON

Jayson E. Street DEF CON Groups Global Ambassador


Tim Roberts (byt3boy)

Casey Bourbonnais

April Wright

Do you love DEF CON? Do you hate having to wait for it all year? Well, thanks to DEF CON groups, you're able to carry the spirit of DEF CON with you year round, and with local people, transcending borders, languages, and anything else that may separate us!

In this special event, your DEF CON groups team who works behind the scenes to make DCG possible will introduce themselves and provide status updates. After we're done talking, the remainder of time will be an informal open floor right there in the room to mingle and talk all things DCG.

There will be a:

Designated area in the room for those wanting to start/join a group
Designated area in the room for those wanting to share project ideas

Brent White (B1TK1LL3R)
Bio Coming Soon

Jeff Moss (The Dark Tangent)
Bio Coming Soon

Jayson E. Street
Bio Coming Soon

Bio Coming Soon

Tim Roberts (byt3boy)
Bio Coming Soon

Casey Bourbonnais
Bio Coming Soon

April Wright
Bio Coming Soon

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Your Voice is My Passport

Friday at 16:00 in Track 3
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

_delta_zero Senior Data Scientist, Salesforce

Azeem Aqil Senior Security Software Engineer, Salesforce

Financial institutions, home automation products, and offices near universal cryptographic decoders have increasingly used voice fingerprinting as a method for authentication. Recent advances in machine learning and text-to-speech have shown that synthetic, high-quality audio of subjects can be generated using transcripted speech from the target. Are current techniques for audio generation enough to spoof voice authentication algorithms? We demonstrate, using freely available machine learning models and limited budget, that standard speaker recognition and voice authentication systems are indeed fooled by targeted text-to-speech attacks. We further show a method which reduces data required to perform such an attack, demonstrating that more people are at risk for voice impersonation than previously thought.

_delta_zero performs machine learning on log data by day, and writes his dissertation on malware datasets by night. He was voted"most likely to create Skynet" by @alexcpsec, and he toys with offensive uses for machine learning in his free time. He has spoken at BlackHat USA, DEF CON, SecTor, BSidesLV/Charm, and the NIPS workshop on Machine Deception.


Azeem Aqil
Azeem Aqil is a security engineer at Salesforce. He works on building and maintaining the detection and response infrastructure that powers Salesforce security. Azeem is an academic turned hacker who has published and spoken at various academic security conferences.

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The ring 0 façade: awakening the processor's inner demons

Saturday at 13:30 in Track 1
20 minutes | Demo, Tool

Christopher Domas

Your computer is not yours. You may have shelled out thousands of dollars for it. It may be sitting right there on your desk. You may have carved your name deep into its side with a blowtorch and chisel. But it's still not yours. Some vendors are building secret processor registers into your system's hardware, only accessible by shadowy third parties with trusted keys. We as the end users are being intentionally locked out and left in the dark, unable to access the heart of our own processors, while select organizations are granted full control of the internals of our CPUs. In this talk, we'll demonstrate our work on how to probe for and unlock these previously invisible secret registers, to break into all-powerful features buried deep within the processor core, to finally take back our own computers.

Christopher Domas
Christopher Domas is a security researcher and embedded systems engineer, currently investigating scalable IoT security. He is best known for releasing impractical solutions to non-existent problems, including the world's first single instruction C compiler (M/o/Vfuscator), toolchains for generating images in program control flow graphs (REpsych), showing that all programs can be reduced to the same instruction stream (reductio), and the branchless DOOM meltdown mitigations. His more relevant work includes the sandsifter processor fuzzer, the binary visualization tool ..cantor.dust.., and the memory sinkhole x86 privilege escalation exploit.


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GOD MODE UNLOCKED: Hardware Backdoors in [redacted] x86 CPUs

Friday at 14:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit

Christopher Domas

Complexity is increasing. Trust eroding. In the wake of Spectre and Meltdown, when it seems that things cannot get any darker for processor security, the last light goes out. This talk will demonstrate what everyone has long feared but never proven: there are hardware backdoors in some x86 processors, and they're buried deeper than we ever imagined possible. While this research specifically examines a third-party processor, we use this as a stepping stone to explore the feasibility of more widespread hardware backdoors.

Christopher Domas
Christopher Domas is a security researcher and embedded systems engineer, currently investigating scalable IoT security. He is best known for releasing impractical solutions to non-existent problems, including the world's first single instruction C compiler (M/o/Vfuscator), toolchains for generating images in program control flow graphs (REpsych), showing that all programs can be reduced to the same instruction stream (reductio), and the branchless DOOM meltdown mitigations. His more relevant work includes the sandsifter processor fuzzer, the binary visualization tool ..cantor.dust.., and the memory sinkhole x86 privilege escalation exploit.


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One-liners to Rule Them All

Friday at 11:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo

egypt Security Analyst, Black Hills Information Security

William Vu Security Researcher, Rapid7

It began with the forging of the command line. And some things that should not have been forgotten, were lost. History became legend, legend became myth.

Sometimes you just need to pull out the third column of a CSV file. Sometimes you just need to sort IP addresses. Sometimes you have to pull out IP addresses from the third column and sort them, but only if the first column is a particular string and for some reason the case is random.

In this DEF CON 101 talk, we'll cover a ton of bash one-liners that we use to speed up our hacking. Along the way, we'll talk about the concepts behind each of them and how we apply various strategies to accomplish whatever weird data processing task comes up while testing exploits and attacking a network.

egypt is a penetration tester for Black Hills Information Security and a contributor to the Metasploit Project. He is not a country.


William Vu
William Vu is a security researcher at Rapid7 who works on the Metasploit Project.

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Lost and Found Certificates: dealing with residual certificates for pre-owned domains

Sunday at 13:30 in Track 2
20 minutes | Demo, Tool

Ian Foster Hacker

Dylan Ayrey Hacker

When purchasing a new domain name you would expect that you are the only one who can obtain a valid SSL certificate for it, however that is not always the case. When the domain had a prior owner(s), even several years prior, they may still possess a valid SSL certificate for it and there is very little you can do about it.

Using Certificate Transparency, we examined millions of domains and certificates and found thousands of examples where the previous owner for a domain still possessed a valid SSL certificate for the domain long after it changed ownership. We will review the results from our ongoing large scale quantitative analysis over past and current domains and certificates. We'll explore the massive scale of the problem, what we can do about it, how you can protect yourself, and a proposed process change to make this less of a problem going forwards.

We end by introducing BygoneSSL, a new tool and dashboard that shows an up to date view of affected domains and certificates using publicly available DNS data and Certificate Transparency logs. BygoneSSL will demonstrate how widespread the issue is, let domain owners determine if they could be affected, and can be used to track the number of affected domains over time.

Ian Foster
Ian enjoys researching systems and networking problems and solutions in an effort to make the world more secure. He has published research papers analyzing the new gTLD land rush and crawling and parsing most WHOIS records. From demonstrating how insecure aftermarket OBD "dongles" can be used to compromise and take over automobiles; to measuring the paths an email traverses online with encryption in an effort to increase integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality; and more. During the day Ian is a Security Engineer fighting for the users.

Dylan Ayrey
Dylan is a security engineer, who in his free time authors lots of open source projects, such as truffleHog. He graduated college in 2015 and has been working in security ever since.

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Defending the 2018 Midterm Elections from Foreign Adversaries

Sunday at 10:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

Joshua M Franklin Hacker

Kevin Franklin Hacker

Election Buster is an open source tool created in 2014 to identify malicious domains masquerading as candidate webpages and voter registration systems. During 2016, fake domains were used to compromise credentials of a Democratic National Committee (DNC) IT services company, and foreign adversaries probed voter registration systems. The tool now cross-checks domain information against open source threat intelligence feeds, and uses a semi-autonomous scheme for identifying phundraising and false flag sites via ensembled data mining and deep learning techniques. We identified Russian nationals registering fake campaign sites, candidates deploying defensive—and offensive—measures against their opponents, and candidates unintentionally exposing sensitive PII to the public. This talk provides an analysis of our 2016 Presidential Election data, and all data recently collected during the 2018 midterm elections. The talk also details technological and procedural measures that government offices and campaigns can use to defend themselves.

Joshua M Franklin
Joshua Franklin has over a decade of experience working with election technology, and is a security engineer at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) focusing on cellular and electronic voting security. Prior to NIST, Joshua worked at the U.S. Election Assistance Commission gathering hands-on experience with a variety of voting technologies. Joshua managed federal certification efforts and alongside election officials, labs, and manufacturers across the United States. Joshua recently co-chaired the Election Cybersecurity Working Group, and was the principal author for the security portions of the next generation of federal voting system standards.

Kevin Franklin
Kevin Franklin has several decades of technology experience in big data. He possesses an undergraduate degree in Engineering from Mississippi State University and a masters degree in Computer Science from Southern Polytechnic University.

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For the Love of Money: Finding and exploiting vulnerabilities in mobile point of sales systems

Sunday at 10:00 in Track 3
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

Leigh-Anne Galloway Cyber Security Resilience Lead, Positive Technologies

Tim Yunusov Hacker

These days it's hard to find a business that doesn't accept faster payments. Mobile Point of Sales (mPOS) terminals have propelled this growth lowering the barriers for small and micro-sized businesses to accept non-cash payments. Older payment technologies like mag-stripe still account for the largest majority of all in-person transactions. This is complicated further by the introduction of new payment standards such as NFC. As with each new iteration in payment technology, inevitably weaknesses are introduced into this increasingly complex payment eco-system.

In this talk, we ask, what are the security and fraud implications of removing the economic barriers to accepting card payments; and what are the risks associated with continued reliance on old card standards like mag-stripe? In the past, testing for payment attack vectors has been limited to the scope of individual projects and to those that have permanent access to POS and payment infrastructure. Not anymore!

In what we believe to be the most comprehensive research conducted in this area, we consider four of the major mPOS providers spread across the US and Europe; Square, SumUp, iZettle and Paypal. We provide live demonstrations of new vulnerabilities that allow you to MitM transactions, send arbitrary code via Bluetooth and mobile application, modify payment values for mag-stripe transactions, and a vulnerability in firmware; DoS to RCE. Using this sampled geographic approach, we are able to show the current attack surface of mPOS and, to predict how this will evolve over the coming years.

For audience members that are interested in integrating testing practices into their organization or research practices, we will show you how to use mPOS to identify weaknesses in payment technologies, and how to remain undetected in spite of anti-fraud and security mechanisms.

Leigh-Anne Galloway
Leigh-Anne Galloway is a Security Researcher who specializes in the areas of application and payment security. Leigh-Anne started her career in incident response, leading investigations into payment card data breaches. This is where she discovered her passion for security advisory and payment technologies. She has presented and authored research on ATM security, application security and payment technology vulnerabilities, and has previously spoken at DevSecCon, BSides, Hacktivity, 8dot8, OWASP, and Troopers.


Tim Yunusov
Tim Yunusov is a Senior Expert in the area of banking security and application security. He has authored multiple research in these areas including "Apple Pay replay attacks" (Black Hat USA 2017), "7 sins of ATM protection against logical attacks" (PacSec, POC), "Bruteforce of PHPSESSID", "XML Out-Of-Band" (Black Hat EU), and is rated in the Top Ten Web Hacking Techniques by WhiteHat Security. He regularly speaks at conferences and has previously spoken at CanSecWest, Black Hat USA, Black Hat EU, HackInTheBox, Nullcon, NoSuchCon, Hack In Paris, ZeroNights and Positive Hack Days.


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It's Assembler, Jim, but not as we know it: (ab)using binaries from embedded devices for fun and profit

Friday at 12:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo

Morgan ``indrora'' Gangwere Hacker

With the proliferation of Linux-based SoCs -- you've likely got one or two in your house, on your person or in your pocket -- it is often useful to look "under the hood" at what is running; Additionally, in-situ debugging may be unavailable due to read-only filesystems, memory is often limited, and other factors keep us from attacking a live device. This talk looks at attacking binaries outside their native environment using QEMU, the Quick Emulator, as well as techniques for extracting relevant content from devices and exploring them.

Morgan ``indrora'' Gangwere
Morgan is a student at the University of New Mexico where he studies an unrelated topic entirely, but does network security because it's interesting. Previously, he's spoken on subjects such as web proxies, community engagement, and typesetting. He started working with computers when he was a young child and hasn't given them up since, even if his wrists seem to disagree.

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Playback: a TLS 1.3 story

Friday at 15:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo

Alfonso García Alguacil Senior Penetration Tester, Cisco

Alejo Murillo Moya Red Team Lead EMEAR, Cisco

TLS 1.3 is the new secure communication protocol that should be already with us. One of its new features is 0-RTT (Zero Round Trip Time Resumption) that could potentially allow replay attacks. This is a known issue acknowledged by the TLS 1.3 specification, as the protocol does not provide replay protections for 0-RTT data, but proposed countermeasures that would need to be implemented on other layers, not at the protocol level. Therefore, the applications deployed with TLS 1.3 support could end up exposed to replay attacks depending on the implementation of those protections.

This talk will describe the technical details regarding the TLS 1.3 0-RTT feature and its associated risks. It will include Proof of Concepts (PoC) showing real-world replay attacks against TLS 1.3 libraries and browsers. Finally, potential solutions or mitigation controls would be discussed that will help to prevent those attacks when deploying software using a library with TLS 1.3 support.

Alfonso García Alguacil
Alfonso Garcia Alguacil is a penetration tester and security consultant with 7 years of experience. Words like exploit, code or binary would quickly catch his attention. He currently works at Cisco as a senior security consultant.

Alejo Murillo Moya
Alejo Murillo Moya has been always passionate about security with 10+ years of experience as a penetration tester and security consultant, achieving during that journey important technical certifications like CREST and GIAC GSE. He is currently working at Cisco as a red teaming lead and managing security consultant.

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Having fun with IoT: Reverse Engineering and Hacking of Xiaomi IoT Devices

Saturday at 14:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit

Dennis Giese Hacker

While most IoT accessory manufacturers have a narrow area of focus, Xiaomi, an Asian based vendor, controls a vast IoT ecosystem, including smart lightbulbs, sensors, cameras, vacuum cleaners, network speakers, electric scooters and even washing machines. In addition, Xiaomi also manufactures smartphones. Their products are sold not only in Asia, but also in Europe and North America. The company claims to have the biggest IoT platform worldwide.

In my talk, I will give a brief overview of the most common, Wi-Fi based, Xiaomi IoT devices. Their devices may have a deep integration in the daily life (like vacuum cleaners, smart toilet seats, cameras, sensors, lights).

I will focus on the features, computational power, sensors, security and ability to root the devices. Let’s explore how you can have fun with the devices or use them for something useful, like mapping Wi-Fi signal strength while vacuuming your house. I will also cover some interesting things I discovered while reverse engineering Xiaomi's devices and discuss which protections were deployed by the developers (and which not).

Be prepared to see the guts of many of these devices. We will exploit them and use them to exploit other devices.

Dennis Giese
Dennis is a grad student at TU Darmstadt and a researcher at Northeastern University. He was a member of one european ISP's CERT for several years.

While being interested in physical security and lockpicking, he enjoys applied research and reverse engineering malware and all kind of devices.

His latest victim is the Xiaomi IoT cloud. Hehas presented at the Chaos Communication Congress and the REcon BRX.

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Beyond the Lulz: Black-Hat Trolling, White-Hat Trolling, Attacking and Defending Our Attention Landscape

Saturday at 20:00 in Octavius 9
Fireside Hax |

Matt Goerzen Researcher, Data & Society

Dr. Jeanna Matthews Fellow at Data & Society, Associate Professor of Computer Science at Clarkson University

Joan Donovan Media Manipulation/Platform Accountability Research Lead, Data and Society in Manhattan

White hat or critical grey hat trolling? Trolling as art? Trolling as hybrid warfare? Trolling as propaganda? In this Fireside Hax, we will challenge your assumptions about trolling. Trolls are attention hackers, using social and technical means to bait journalists, set agendas, game media gatekeepers, and direct audiences. Sometimes they also have fun. We will discuss a range of trolling techniques like sockpuppeting, dogpiling, doxing, attention honeypots, and cognitive denial of service attacks that we have not seen concisely catalogued elsewhere. We will also discuss high-profile examples of trolling such as"training" the Microsoft Tay chatbot, fake Antifa accounts, Russian sockpuppet accounts, and Phineas Fisher's use of Hacking Team's twitter account--and ask attendees to consider each as black hat attacks or grey hat attempts to point out critical societal vulnerabilities that should be"patched." We will also talk about"troll the troll" accounts like ImposterBuster and YesYoureRacist and the role"white hat trolls" might play in auditing platforms or proposing platform-based controls. Time permitting, we will discuss art projects that trollishly critiqued the European Commission, Google AdSense, and the NSA. This will not be a lecture and it will not shy away from controversy. Join two members of the Media Manipulation Team at Data & Society to collectively consider the role trolling can play in pointing out the flaws in our attention/media landscape.

Matt Goerzen
Matt Goerzen studies trolling techniques and cultures as part of the Media Manipulation team at Data & Society. He's also applied many of the techniques in the art world, for example by once developing an absurdist AdSense campaign ostensibly designed to sell a hideous sculpture to art collector Shaquille O'Neal, but more accurately designed to piggyback off of free clickbait media attention to inform readers about psychometric ad tech practices. He has written an academic study of contemporary artists who function as what he calls"critical trolls," arguing that trolling can be seen as an extension of the politicized attentional strategies used by the 20th-century avant-garde. His current work at Data & Society focuses on mapping the way white supremacists and state actors have appropriated trolling techniques for use in influence operations as a form of"bottom-up agenda setting."

Dr. Jeanna Matthews
Jeanna Matthews is an associate professor of Computer Science at Clarkson University and a 2017-18 fellow at Data and Society where she has been collaborating with the Media Manipulation team. She was a speaker and DEF CON 23 and 24, both times on the topic of vulnerabilities in virtual networks. Her broader research interests include virtualization, cloud computing, computer security, computer networks, operating systems and algorithmic accountability and transparency. Jeanna received her Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of California at Berkeley and is an ACM Distinguished Speaker.


Joan Donovan
Joan Donovan is the Media Manipulation/Platform Accountability Research Lead at Data and Society in Manhattan. After completing her PhD in Sociology and Science Studies at the University of California San Diego, she was a postdoctoral fellow at the UCLA Institute for Society and Genetics, where she researched white supremacists' use of DNA ancestry tests, social movements, and technology. For several years, Joan has conducted action research with different networked social movements in order to map and improve the communication infrastructures built by protesters. In her role as a participant, she identifies information bottlenecks, decodes algorithmic behavior, and connects organizations with other like-minded networks.

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Pwning "the toughest target": the exploit chain of winning the largest bug bounty in the history of ASR program

Thursday at 11:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes |

Guang Gong Alpha Team at Qihoo 360

Wenlin Yang Alpha Team at Qihoo 360

Jianjun Dai Security researcher of Qihoo360 Alpha Team

In recent years, Google has made many great efforts in exploit mitigation and attack surface reduction to strengthen the security of android system. It is becoming more and more difficult to remotely compromise Android phones especially Google’s Pixel phone.

The Pixel phone is protected by many layers of security. It was the only device that was not pwned in the 2017 Mobile Pwn2Own competition. But our team discovered a remote exploit chain—the first of its kind since the Android Security Rewards (ASR) program expansion, which could compromise The Pixel phone remotely. The exploit chain was reported to Android security team directly. They took it seriously and patched it quickly. Because of the severity and our detailed report, we were awarded the highest reward ($112,500) in the history of the ASR program.

In this talk we will detail how we used the exploit chain to inject arbitrary code into system_server process and get system user permissions. The exploit chain includes two bugs, CVE-2017-5116 and CVE-2017-14904. CVE-2017-5116 is a V8 engine bug related with Webassembly and SharedArrayBuffer. It is used to get remote code execution in sandboxed Chrome render process. CVE-2017-14904 is a bug in Android's libgralloc module that is used to escape from the sandbox. The way we used for sandbox escaping is very interesting, rarely talked about before. All details of vulnerabilities and mitigation bypassing techniques will be given in this talk.

Guang Gong
Guang Gong (@oldfresher) is a senior security researcher of Qihoo360 and the team leader of 360 Alpha Team. His research interests included Windows rootkits, virtualization and cloud computing. He currently focuses on mobile security, especially on hunting and exploiting Android's vulnerabilities. He has spoken at several security conferences such as Black Hat, CanSecWest, PHDays, SyScan360, MOSEC, PacSec and so on. He is the winner of Mobile Pwn2Own 2015(the target: Nexus 6), Pwn0Rama 2016 (the category of mobile devices), Pwn2Own 2016 (the target: Chrome), PwnFest 2016(the target: Pixel XL), Mobile Pwn2Own 2017(the target: Galaxy S8).


Wenlin Yang
Wenlin Yang is a junior researcher of Qihoo 360 and the team member of 360 Alpha Team. He currently focuses on Android's vulnerabilities. He has submitted multiple bugs to Google and several other vendors in China and received some acknowledgments.

Jianjun Dai
Jianjun Dai (@Jioun_dai) is a security researcher of Qihoo360 Alpha Team, he focus on Android system security research, vulnerability hunting and exploiting development. Previously, he is a security developer, major work include network protocol analysis, vulnerability detection, botnet and backdoor detection, sandbox technology research and development, etc. He have been in Android vulnerability research for more than two years, he found lots of vulnerabilities in AOSP, and won the Bug Bounty. He is a speaker at the CanSecWest conference.

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De-anonymizing Programmers from Source Code and Binaries

Friday at 10:00 in Track 2
45 minutes |

Rachel Greenstadt Associate Professor, Drexel University

Dr. Aylin Caliskan Assistant professor of Computer Science, George Washington University

Many hackers like to contribute code, binaries, and exploits under pseudonyms, but how anonymous are these contributions really? In this talk, we will discuss our work on programmer de-anonymization from the standpoint of machine learning. We will show how abstract syntax trees contain stylistic fingerprints and how these can be used to potentially identify programmers from code and binaries. We perform programmer de-anonymization using both obfuscated binaries, and real-world code found in single-author GitHub repositories and the leaked Nulled.IO hacker forum.

Rachel Greenstadt
Dr. Rachel Greenstadt (PI) is an Associate Professor of Computer Science at Drexel University where she teaches graduate-level courses in computer security, privacy, and machine learning. She founded the Privacy, Security, and Automation Laboratory at Drexel University in 2008. Dr. Greenstadt was among the first to explore the effect of adversarial attacks on stylometric methods, and the first to demonstrate empirically how stylometric methods can fail in adversarial settings while succeeding in non-adversarial settings.

She has a history of speaking at hacker conferences including DEF CON 14, ShmooCon 2009, 31C3, and 32C3.

Dr. Greenstadt's scholarship has been recognized by the privacy research community. She is an alum of the DARPA Computer Science Study Group and a recipient of the NSF CAREER Award. Her work has received the PET Award for Outstanding Research in Privacy Enhancing Technologies and the Andreas Pfitzmann Best Student Paper Award. She currently serves as co-editor-in-chief of the journal Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs). Her research has been featured in the New York Times, the New Republic, Der Spiegel, and other local and international media outlets.


Dr. Aylin Caliskan
Aylin Caliskan is an assistant professor of computer science at George Washington University. Her research interests include the emerging science of bias in machine learning, fairness in artificial intelligence, data privacy, and security. Her work aims to characterize and quantify aspects of natural and artificial intelligence using a multitude of machine learning and language processing techniques. In her recent publication in Science, she demonstrated how semantics derived from language corpora contain human-like biases. In addition, she developed novel privacy attacks to de-anonymize programmers using code stylometry. Her presentations on both de-anonymization and bias in machine learning are the recipients of best talk awards. Her work on semi-automated anonymization of writing style furthermore received the Privacy Enhancing Technologies Symposium Best Paper Award. Her research has received extensive press coverage across the globe. Aylin holds a PhD in Computer Science from Drexel University and a Master of Science in Robotics from the University of Pennsylvania. She has previously spoken at 29C3, 31C3, 32C3, and 33C3.


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Automated Discovery of Deserialization Gadget Chains

Friday at 16:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Tool

Ian Haken Senior Security Software Engineer, Netflix

Although vulnerabilities stemming from the deserialization of untrusted data have been understood for many years, unsafe deserialization continues to be a vulnerability class that isn't going away. Attention on Java deserialization vulnerabilities skyrocketed in 2015 when Frohoff and Lawrence published an RCE gadget chain in the Apache Commons library and as recently as last year's Black Hat, Muñoz and Miroshis presented a survey of dangerous JSON deserialization libraries. While much research and automated detection technology has so far focused on the discovery of vulnerable entry points (i.e. code that deserializes untrusted data), finding a "gadget chain" to actually make the vulnerability exploitable has thus far been a largely manual exercise. In this talk, I present a new technique for the automated discovery of deserialization gadget chains in Java, allowing defensive teams to quickly identify the significance of a deserialization vulnerability and allowing penetration testers to quickly develop working exploits. At the conclusion we will also be releasing a FOSS toolkit which utilizes this methodology and has been used to successfully develop many deserialization exploits in both internal applications and open source projects.

Ian Haken
Ian Haken is a senior security software engineer at Netflix where he works on the platform security team to develop tools and services that defend the Netflix platform. Before working at Netflix, he spent two years as security researcher at Coverity where he developed defensive application security tools and helped to develop automated discovery of security vulnerabilities through static software analysis. He received his Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley in 2014 with a focus in computability theory and algorithmic information theory.

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4G—Who is paying your cellular phone bill?

Friday at 14:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Dr. Silke Holtmanns Distinguished Member of Technical Staff, Security Expert, Nokia Bell Labs

Isha Singh Master student, Aalto University in Helsinki (Finland

Cellular networks are connected with each other through a worldwide private, but not unaccessible network, called IPX network. Through this network user related information is exchanged for roaming purposes or for cross-network communication. This private network has been breached by criminals and nation states. Cellular networks are extremely complex and many attacks have been already been found e.g. DoS, location tracking, SMS interception, data interception. Many attacks have been seen in practice, but not all attack are understood and not all attack avenues using the IPX network have been explored. This presentation shows how a S9 interface in 4G networks, which is used for charging related user information exchange between operators can be exploited to perform fraud attacks. A demonstration with technical details will be given and guidance on practical countermeasures.

Dr. Silke Holtmanns
Silke is a security expert at Nokia Bell Labs (Research branch of Nokia). She holds a PhD in Mathematics and has 18 years of experience in mobile security research and standardization. In her current research she investigates new and existing mobile network security attacks using SS7, Diameter and GTP protocols via the interconnection network and how to counter those attacks in 4G/5G networks. She found many 4G related IPX attacks and countermeasures e.g. Location Tracking (NATO CyCon), DoS (Black Hat EU 2016), cellular data interception (34C3 Chaos Computer Congress). She drives in the operator association GSMA the security of cellular network and being responsible there for the Diameter Signaling Security Specification. She served as a special matter expert on cellular security to the US Federal Communication Commission and to the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security. She is rapporteur of ten 3GPP security specifications and has a long track record of security publications.

Currently, she is actively supporting the 5G Roaming security developments. For her the interesting part is fixing problems in world wide network without breaking it, not finding an issue.


Isha Singh
Isha is a master student at Aalto University in Helsinki (Finland) and doing her Thesis research work at Nokia Bell Labs under supervision of Professor Raimo Kantola. She is completing her Master's in Wireless Communication as major subject and Machine Learning as minor. Her research covers smart city environmental perception from ambient cellular signals and 5G Ubiquitous sensing. She is passionate about IoT devices and their security in 5G scenario. She has experiences on embedded devices (Arduino, Raspberry Pi) for multiple projects like Analog to Digital converter used in optical communication. Presently she is exploring Cybersecurity, starting from the mobile communication core network security. Testing for vulnerabilities and loopholes and providing solutions using Machine Learning.

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Breaking Smart Speakers: We are Listening to You.

Sunday at 12:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Wu HuiYu Security Researcher At Tencent Blade Team

Qian Wenxiang Security Researcher At Tencent Blade Team

In the past two years, smart speakers have become the most popular IoT device, Amazon_ Google and Apple have introduced their own smart speaker products. Most of these smart speakers have natural language recognition, chat, music playback, IoT device control, shopping, and so on. Manufacturers use artificial intelligence technology to make smart speakers have similar human capabilities in the chat conversation. However, with the smart speakers coming into more and more homes, and the function is becoming more powerful, its security has been questioned by many people. People are worried that smart speakers will be hacked to leak their privacy, and our research proves that this concern is very necessary.

In this talk, we will present how to use multiple vulnerabilities to achieve remote attack some of the most popular smart speakers. Our final attack effects include silent listening, control speaker speaking content and other demonstrations. And we're also going to talk about how to extract firmware from BGA packages Flash chips such as EMMC, EMCP, NAND Flash, etc. In addition, it contains how to turn on debug interfaces and get root privileges by modifying firmware content and Re-soldering Flash chips, which can be of great help for subsequent vulnerability analysis and debugging. Finally, we will play several demo videos to demonstrate how we can remotely access some Smart Speaker Root permissions and use smart speakers for eavesdropping and playing voice.

Wu HuiYu
Wu HuiYu is a security researcher at Tencent Blade Team of Tencent Security Platform Department. Now his job is mainly focus on IoT security research and mobile security research. He is also a bug hunter, winner of GeekPwn 2015, and speaker of HITB 2018 AMS & POC2017.

Qian Wenxiang
Qian Wenxiang is a security researcher at the Tencent Blade Team of Tencent Security Platform Department. His is focusing on security research of IoT devices. He also performed security audits for web browsers. He was on the top 100 of annual MSRC list (2016 & 2017 ). He published a book called "Whitehat Talk About Web Browser Security ".

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Edge Side Include Injection: Abusing Caching Servers into SSRF and Transparent Session Hijacking

Sunday at 13:30 in Track 3
20 minutes | Demo

ldionmarcil Pentester at GoSecure

When caching servers and load balancers became an integral part of the Internet's infrastructure, vendors introduced "Edge Side Includes" (ESI), a technology allowing malleability in caching systems. This legacy technology, still implemented in nearly all popular HTTP surrogates (caching/load balancing services), is dangerous by design and brings a yet unexplored vector for web-based attacks.

The ESI language consists of a small set of instructions represented by XML tags, served by the backend application server, which are processed on the Edge servers (load balancers, reverse proxies). Due to the upstream-trusting nature of Edge servers, ESI engines are not able to distinguish between ESI instructions legitimately provided by the application server and malicious instructions injected by a malicious party. We identified that ESI can be used to perform SSRF, bypass reflected XSS filters (Chrome), and perform Javascript-less cookie theft, including HTTPOnly cookies.

Identified affected vendors include Akamai, Varnish, Squid, Fastly, WebSphere, WebLogic, F5, and countless language-specific solutions (NodeJS, Ruby, etc.). This presentation will start by introducing ESI and visiting typical infrastructures leveraging it. We will then delve into identification, exploitation of popular ESI engines, and mitigation.

Louis is a Security Analyst working at GoSecure in Montreal where he specializes in offensive appsec and pentest on medium to large scale organizations. Seasoned CTF participant and sometimes finalist with the DCIETS team, he has also written challenges for various competitions. Having recently obtained his Software Engineering degree, he dabbles in various research engagements between pentests.


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Digital Leviathan: a comprehensive list of Nation-State Big Brothers (from huge to little ones

Saturday at 14:00 in Track 2
20 minutes |

Eduardo Izycki Hacker

Rodrigo Colli Hacker

In his notorious book Leviathan, the XVII century English philosopher Thomas Hobbes stated that: we should give our obedience to an unaccountable sovereign otherwise what awaits us is a state of nature that closely resembles civil war—a situation of universal insecurity. It looks like a lot of current political leaders have red and found the teachings of Hobbes applicable to modern day online life.

We witness the rise of the Digital Leviathan. The same apps and applications that people use to connect, express opinions and dissatisfaction are used by governments (even democratic ones) to perform surveillance and censorship.

This talk will focus on evidence of Nation-State spying, performing surveillance, and censorship. The aim is to present a systematical approach of data regarding cyber attacks against political targets (NGO/political groups/media outlets/opposition), acquisition and/or use of spywares from private vendors, requested content/metadata from social media/content providers, and blocking of websites/censorship reported by multiple sources.

The findings of the research imply that:
- 25 nations that have already used cyber offensive capabilities against political targets.
- 60 nations acquired/developed spyware.
- 117 nations requested content/metadata from social media/content providers.
- 21 countries perform some level of censorship to online content.

Eduardo Izycki
Eduardo Izycki and Rodrigo Colli are both independent researchers with experience on information security and incident response. They worked in private-public task force for threat and risk assessment to major events in Brazil during the Confederations Cup 2013, World Cup 2014 and Olympic Games 2016.

Rodrigo Colli

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Vulnerable Out of the Box: An Evaluation of Android Carrier Devices

Friday at 12:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Audience Participation, Exploit

Ryan Johnson Director of Research at Kryptowire

Angelos Stavrou CEO at Kryptowire

Pre-installed apps and firmware pose a risk due to vulnerabilities that can be pre-positioned on a device, rendering the device vulnerable on purchase. This means that the vulnerabilities are present even before the user enables wireless communications and starts installing third-party apps. To quantify the exposure of the Android end-users to vulnerabilities residing within pre-installed apps and firmware, we analyzed a wide range of Android vendors and carriers using devices spanning from low-end to flagship. Our primary focus was exposing pre-positioned threats on Android devices sold by United States (US) carriers, although our results affect devices worldwide. We will provide details of vulnerabilities in devices from all four major US carriers, as well two smaller US carriers, among others. The vulnerabilities we discovered on devices offered by the major US carriers are the following: arbitrary command execution as the system user, obtaining the modem logs and logcat logs, wiping all user data from a device (i.e., factory reset), obtaining and modifying a user’s text messages, sending arbitrary text messages, and getting the phone numbers of the user’s contacts, and more. All of the aforementioned capabilities are obtained outside of the normal Android permission model. Including both locked and unlocked devices, we provide details for 37 unique vulnerabilities affecting 25 Android devices with 11 of them being sold by US carriers. In this talk, we will present our framework that is capable of discovering 0-day vulnerabilities from binary firmware images and applications at scale allowing us to continuously monitor devices across different manufacturers and firmware versions. During the talk, we plan to perform a live demo of how our system works.

Ryan Johnson
Ryan Johnson is a PhD student at George Mason University in Fairfax, VA. His research interests are static and dynamic analysis of Android apps and reverse engineering. He is a co-founder of Kryptowire LLC.

Angelos Stavrou
Dr. Angelos Stavrou founded Kryptowire LLC, and he is an Associate Professor at George Mason University (GMU) and the Director of the Center for Assurance Research and Engineering (CARE) at GMU.

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NSA Talks Cybersecurity

Friday at 11:00 in Track 1
45 minutes |

Rob Joyce

The National Security Agency (NSA) has authorities for both foreign intelligence and cyber security.  This unique position gives NSA insights into the ways networks are exploited and the methods that are effective in defending against threats.  Over time, NSA has adapted the focus of its security efforts and continues to evolve with technologies and the adversaries we face.  The talk will look back at some of the inflection points that have influenced NSA and US Government cybersecurity efforts and look at what is necessary to stay safe in the new environment.

Rob Joyce
Rob Joyce (@RGB_Lights) has been with the Nation Security Agency (NSA) for 29 years and has led organizations doing both foreign intelligence and cybersecurity work.  He is the Senior Advisor for Cybersecurity, having recently returned from the White House as the Cybersecurity Coordinator where he worked national policy, synchronizing activity across the government and partners.  His previous assignment was leading Tailored Access Operations (TAO), the organization developing tools, techniques and capabilities to exploit computers for NSA's foreign intelligence mission.  Prior to that, he was the Deputy Director for Information Assurance, overseeing the protection of national security systems, which includes the nation's cryptographic key material, classified networks and warfighting networks.  In his spare time, Rob builds a computerized Christmas light show.  His most recent display was likely visible from the International Space Station. In addition to an infatuation with Christmas light displays, he helped a Boy Scout troop built catapults for the annual Punkin Chunkin competition until lawyers ruined it for all of us.

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Building Absurd Christmas Light Shows

Saturday at 12:00 in 101 Track
45 minutes

Rob Joyce

Learn about the elements that go into a computerized light display and how you outfit your own house with dazzling blinking lights set to music.  Components of the show are individually explained and live demonstrations of the technology are on display.  Come get inspired to computerize your  own holiday cheer!

Rob Joyce
Rob Joyce (@RGB_Lights) has been with the Nation Security Agency (NSA) for 29 years and has led organizations doing both foreign intelligence and cybersecurity work.  He is the Senior Advisor for Cybersecurity, having recently returned from the White House as the Cybersecurity Coordinator where he worked national policy, synchronizing activity across the government and partners.  His previous assignment was leading Tailored Access Operations (TAO), the organization developing tools, techniques and capabilities to exploit computers for NSA's foreign intelligence mission.  Prior to that, he was the Deputy Director for Information Assurance, overseeing the protection of national security systems, which includes the nation's cryptographic key material, classified networks and warfighting networks.  In his spare time, Rob builds a computerized Christmas light show.  His most recent display was likely visible from the International Space Station. In addition to an infatuation with Christmas light displays, he helped a Boy Scout troop built catapults for the annual Punkin Chunkin competition until lawyers ruined it for all of us.

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Dragnet—Your Social Engineering Sidekick

Friday at 13:30 in Track 1
20 minutes | Demo, Tool

Truman Kain Security Associate, Tevora

First, Dragnet collects dozens of OSINT data points on past and present social engineering targets. Then, using conversion data from previous engagements, Dragnet provides recommendations for use on your current targets: phishing templates, vishing scripts and physical pretexts- all to increase conversions with minimal effort. Finally, features like landing page cloning and domain registration (alongside your standard infrastructure deployment, call scheduling and email delivery) make Dragnet one hell of a catch.

Truman Kain
Truman Kain has taken everything he has learned as a web designer, internet marketer and mobile developer, and applied these insights directly into the development and experience of Dragnet. Why shouldn't your go-to social-engineering tool be as smooth and intuitive as your favorite mobile app?

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Your Watch Can Watch You! Gear Up for the Broken Privilege Pitfalls in the Samsung Gear Smartwatch

Sunday at 14:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit

Dongsung Kim Graduate Student, Sungkyunkwan University

Hyoung-Kee Choi Professor, Sungkyunkwan University

You buy a brand-new smartwatch. You receive emails and send messages, right on your wrist. How convenient, this mighty power! But great power always comes with great responsibility. Smartwatches hold precious information just like smartphones, so do they actually fulfill their responsibilities?

In this talk, we will investigate if the Samsung Gear smartwatch series properly screens unauthorized access to user information. More specifically, we will focus on a communication channel between applications and system services, and how each internal Tizen OS components play the parts in access control.

Based on the analysis, we have developed a new simple tool to discover privilege violations in Tizen-based products. We will present an analysis on the Gear smartwatch which turns out to include a number of vulnerabilities in system services.

We will disclose several previously unknown exploits in this presentation. They enable an unprivileged application to take over the wireless services, the user’s email account, and more. Further discussions will center on the distribution of those exploits through a registered application in the market, and the causes of the vulnerabilities in detail.

Dongsung Kim
Dongsung Kim is a graduate student at Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea. After developing software as a profession for several years, his interests have shifted to Internet security. He participated in bug bounty programs like Jet, The New York Times, United Airlines, and at his own university. His research interests span from reverse engineering to web security.


Hyoung-Kee Choi
Prof. Hyoung-Kee Choi received his Ph.D. in electrical and computer engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology in 2001. He is a professor at Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea. He joined Lancope in 2001 until his leave in 2004, where he guided and contributed to research in Internet security. His research interests span network security and vulnerability assessment.

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Micro-Renovator: Bringing Processor Firmware up to Code

Sunday at 13:00 in Track 2
20 minutes | Demo, Tool

Matt King Hacker

The mitigations for Spectre highlighted a weak link in the patching process for many users: firmware (un)availability. While updated microcode was made publicly available for many processors, end-users are unable to directly consume it. Instead, platform and operating system vendors need to distribute firmware and kernel patches which include the new microcode. Inconsistent support from those vendors has left millions of users without a way to consume these critical security updates, until now. Micro-Renovator provides the ability to apply microcode updates without modifying either platform firmware or the operating system, through simple (and reversible) modifications to the EFI boot partition.

Matt King
Matt is a security geek responsible for ensuring platform and firmware trust at a cloud service provider, and dedicates an inordinate amount of time to updating firmware as a result. He has pen tested a broad range of systems as a product security validation lead at a prominent processor vendor, and has a history of rendering all manner of computing devices inoperable.

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Searching for the Light: Adventures with OpticSpy

Sunday at 11:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo

Joe Grand Hacker

In the counter-future where we, the dissidents and hackers, have control of technology, sending secret messages through blinkenlights can let us exchange information without being detected by dystopian leaders. By modulating light in a way that the human eye cannot see, this simple, yet clever, covert channel lets us hide in plain sight. To decode such transmissions, we must employ some sort of optical receiver.

Enter OpticSpy, an open source hardware module that captures, amplifies, and converts an optical signal from a visible or infrared light source into a digital form that can be analyzed or decoded with a computer. This presentation provides a brief history of covert channels and optical communications, explores the development process and operational details of OpticSpy, and gives a variety of demonstrations of the unit in action.

Joe Grand
Joe Grand (@joegrand), also known as Kingpin, is a computer engineer, hardware hacker, former DEF CON badge designer, teacher, advisor, runner, daddy, honorary doctor, TV host, member of legendary hacker group L0pht Heavy Industries, and the proprietor of Grand Idea Studio ( He has been creating, exploring, and manipulating electronic systems since the 1980s.


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Designing and Applying Extensible RF Fuzzing Tools to Expose PHY Layer Vulnerabilities

Sunday at 12:00 in Track 3
45 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit

Matt Knight Senior Security Engineer, Cruise Automation

Ryan Speers Director of Research, Ionic Security

In this session, we introduce an open source hardware and software framework for fuzzing arbitrary RF protocols, all the way down to the PHY. While fuzzing has long been relied on by security researchers to identify software bugs, applying fuzzing methodologies to RF and hardware systems has historically been challenging due to siloed tools and the limited capabilities of commodity RF chipsets.

We created the TumbleRF fuzzing orchestration framework to address these shortfalls by defining core fuzzing logic while abstracting a hardware interface API that can be mapped for compatibility with any RF driver. Thus, supporting a new radio involves merely extending an API, rather than writing a protocol-specific fuzzer from scratch.

Additionally, we introduce Orthrus, a low-cost 2.4 GHz offensive radio tool that provides PHY-layer mutability to offer Software Defined Radio-like features in a flexible and low-latency embedded form factor. By combining the two, researchers will be able to fuzz and test RF protocols with greater depth and precision than ever before.

Attendees can expect to leave this talk with an understanding of how RF and hardware physical layers actually work, and how to identify security issues that lie latent in these designs.

Matt Knight
Matt Knight (@embeddedsec) is a Senior Security Engineer with Cruise Automation, where he works on securing autonomous cars and the infrastructure that supports them. Matt also leads the RF practice at River Loop Security, an embedded systems security and design consultancy. With specific interests in RF networks and physical layers, he notably reverse engineered the LoRa PHY based on blind signal analysis, and has run several trainings on RF reverse engineering fundamentals. Matt holds a BE in Electrical Engineering from Dartmouth College.


Ryan Speers
Ryan Speers (@rmspeers) is a security researcher and developer who enjoys embedded systems, low-power radio protocols, and reversing proprietary systems. He has worked in offensive and defensive roles on networks, Windows, micro controllers, and many things in-between. As co-founder at River Loop Security, he tests embedded systems for security issues, and helps clients build more secure systems. He is also Director of Research for Ionic Security where he leads system and cryptographic research. He has previously spoken at a number of security conferences and written some articles for journals ranging from peer-reviewed academic publications to PoC||GTFO.


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Through the Eyes of the Attacker: Designing Embedded Systems Exploits for Industrial Control Systems

Saturday at 10:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo

Jos Wetzels Security Researcher, Midnight Blue Labs

Marina Krotofil ICS/SCADA Security Professional

In 2017 a malware framework dubbed TRITON (also referred to as TRISIS or HatMan) was discovered targeting a petrochemical plant in Saudi Arabia. TRITON was designed to compromise the Schneider Electric Triconex line of Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS), potentially in order to cause physical damage. TRITON is the most complex publicly known ICS attack framework to date and the first publicly known one to target safety controllers. While the functionality of the malware is understood, little is known about the complexity of developing such an implant. The goal of this talk is to provide the audience with a “through the eyes of the attacker” experience in designing advanced embedded systems exploits & implants for Industrial Control Systems (ICS). Attendees will learn about the background of the TRITON incident, the process of reverse-engineering and exploiting ICS devices and developing implants and OT payloads as part of a cyber-physical attack and will be provided with details on real-world ICS vulnerabilities and implant strategies.

In the first part of the talk we will provide an introduction to ICS attacks in general and the TRITON incident in particular. We will outline the danger of TRITON being repurposed by copycats and estimate the complexity and development cost of such offensive ICS capabilities.

In the second and third parts of the talk we will discuss the process of exploiting ICS devices to achieve code execution and developing ICS implants and OT payloads. We will discuss real-world ICS vulnerabilities and present several implant scenarios such as arbitrary code execution backdoors (as used in TRITON), pin configuration attacks, protocol handler hooking to spoof monitored signal values, suppressing interrupts & alarm functionality, preventing implant removal and control logic restoration and achieving cross-boot persistence. We will discuss several possible OT payload scenarios and how these could be implemented on ICS devices such as the Triconex safety controllers.

In the final part of the talk we'll wrap up our assessment of the complexity & cost of developing offensive ICS capabilities such as the TRITON attack and offer recommendations to defenders and ICS vendors.

Jos Wetzels
Jos Wetzels is an independent security researcher with Midnight Blue specializing in embedded systems security across various domains ranging from industrial and automotive systems to IoT and networking equipment. He previously worked as a researcher at the Distributed and Embedded Security group (DIES) at the University of Twente (UT) where he developed exploit mitigation solutions for constrained Industrial Control Systems (ICS) used in critical infrastructure, performed various security analyses of state-of-the-art network and host-based intrusion detection systems and has been involved in the AVATAR research project regarding on-the-fly detection and containment of unknown malware and Advanced Persistent Threats. He has assisted teaching hands-on offensive security classes for graduate students at the Dutch Kerckhoffs Institute for several years.


Marina Krotofil
Marina Krotofil is an experienced ICS/SCADA professional. She previously worked as a Principal Analyst in Cyber-Physical group at FireEye (USA), Lead Cyber Security Researcher at Honeywell (USA) and as a Senior Security Consultant at the European Network for Cyber Security (Netherlands). She spent seven years researching on offensive Industrial Control Systems (ICS) security: discovering and weaponizing unique attack vectors, engineering damage scenarios and understanding attacker techniques when exploiting ICS. Marina offensive security skills serves her well during Incident Responses, ICS malware analysis and when engineering defenses. She authored more than 20 academic and white papers on ICS security and is a frequent speaker at the leading security events around the world. She holds MBA in Technology Management, MSc in Telecommunication and MSc in Information and Communication Systems.


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The L0pht Testimony, 20 Years Later (and Other Things You Were Afraid to Ask)

Friday at 17:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Audience Participation

L0pht Heavy Industries Hacker Collective

Elinor Mills Senior Vice President of Content and Media Strategy at Bateman Group

DilDog Hacker, Co-Founder, Veracode

Joe Grand, Kingpin Hacker

Space Rogue Global Strategy Lead for X-Force Red, IBM

Mudge Head of Security, Stripe.

Silicosis Hacker

John Tan Hacker

Weld Pond Hacker, Co-Founder, Veracode

2018 is the 20th anniversary of the hacker think-tank L0pht Heavy Industries testimony before the US Senate Homeland Security & Governmental Affairs Committee on the topic of weak computer security in government. The testimony made national news when the group announced they could take down the Internet in 30 minutes. It was also the first-time hackers using handles appeared before a US Legislative body.

Members of the L0pht have grown from their hacker roots to become distinguished leaders and contributors in the security community and beyond. They run multi-million dollar security-focused organizations, have lobbied the government for better security laws, work for some of the largest companies in the world, and continue to spread the message of the positive aspects of hacking.

With several of the L0pht's original members, this discussion will cover the original testimony and the changes that have happened over the last 20 years. Is the government any more secure? Have they provided enough influence to help protect its citizens' data? What steps should we take to ensure user security and privacy in the future? We are hoping for audience participation and also welcome questions about any other time in the L0pht's relatively short, but poignant, existence.

L0pht Heavy Industries
L0pht Heavy Industries was a hacker collective active between 1992 and 2000 and located in the Boston, Massachusetts area. The L0pht was one of the first viable hackerspaces in the US, and a pioneer of coordinated disclosure. In May, 1998, the group testified in front of a US Senate committee on weak computer security in government where they famously exclaimed they could take down the Internet in 30 minutes.

Elinor Mills
Elinor Mills has been intrigued by hackers since she covered DEF CON III as a journalist in 1995. Following four years reporting for the Associated Press, she joined IDG News Service and for an early travel assignment headed off to the Las Vegas desert for the annual hacker pilgrimage (a trek she's taken more than a dozen times since). There she learned about the nuances of hacking, delighted in the Spot-the-Fed contests and met youth who would one day be leaders in securing the internet today. She went on to reporting jobs at The Industry Standard, Reuters and CNET over the next two decades covering a variety of tech topics, but her main interest remained security and the passion and intellectual drive of the people looking for the flaws that threaten our digital lives. Today, she helps hackers and security entrepreneurs spread the gospel as Senior Vice President of Content and Media Strategy at Bateman Group. Software may be eating the world, but hackers are keeping it safe.


DilDog joined the L0pht shortly after graduating from MIT, leaving his job at a major bank to work on a password cracker in a warehouse with a bunch of hacker misfits. Thankfully, that wasn't as ridiculous as it sounded, and it turned out that L0phtCrack would be kind of a big deal. He's still the primary maintainer of the codebase today, 20 years later. Also at L0pht and @stake, he developed AntiSniff, a promiscuous-mode device detection system, wrote a bunch of security advisories, and developed a fine cDc-brand remote administration tool named Back Orifice 2000. Also at L0pht and throughout the @stake acquisition, he developed an automated software decompilation system that would become the core of the static analysis technology for the startup he and Chris Wysopal would found in 2006, Veracode.

Joe Grand, Kingpin
Joe Grand, also known as Kingpin, is a computer engineer, hardware hacker, former DEF CON badge designer, and proprietor of Grand Idea Studio ( He joined the L0pht as a 16-year-old in 1992. The youngest member and technological juvenile delinquent, the L0pht kept him out of trouble and helped redirect his passion towards good. Kingpin worked on the POCSAG Pager Decoder Kit, AMPS-based cellular phone hacking, and Palm OS application development, among other things. He was also a t-shirt shipper, food picker-upper, MIT Flea Market hawker, and terrified speaker at the US Senate Testimony in 1998. Kingpin was responsible for getting everyone sick in his attempt at making the infamous L0pht R00t B33r. He still hasn't apologized.


Space Rogue
Space Rogue (Cris Thomas) joined the L0pht in 1992. While there he created one of the first Macintosh hacking sites, The Whacked Mac Archives and released an early MacOS exploit for FWB Hard Disk ToolKit. Later, while still at the L0pht he created and ran the Hacker News Network. He was part of the L0pht's US Senate Testimony in 1998. After the L0pht Space Rogue went on to work at security companies such as @Stake, Guardent, Trustwave and Tenable. He currently works as the Global Strategy Lead for X-Force Red at IBM.


Mudge was responsible for early research into a type of security vulnerability known as the buffer overflow. He also published some of the first security advisories and research demonstrating early vulnerabilities such as code injection, side-channel attacks, and information leaks. In addition to these advisories he has had numerous technical papers published in peer reviewed journals.

Mudge has testified to the US Congress multiple times in addition to having a long history of teaching and lecturing at universities, military academies, and government agencies. He was the initial author of L0phtCrack and the author of early BGP attacks made famous in testimony to the US Senate referencing how to 'take down the Internet in 30 minutes.'

In 2010 he took an appointed position as a Department of Defense official within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he was responsible for redirecting the DoD's cyber research efforts. After his tenure at DARPA he was corporate VP of engineering at Motorola, and then the Deputy Director of Google's Advanced Technology and Projects group, before starting the 501(c)3 organization Cyber-ITL at the behest of the White House. He is presently Head of Security at Stripe.


Silicosis (Paul Nash) joined the l0pht in 1998 and contributed to vulnerability research, with a focus on network protocols. In 1999, along with Mudge, he consulted with Marcus Ranum's new startup—Network Flight Recorder. Paul wrote a series of hybrid protocol analysis & anomaly detectors for the common protocols of the time. They successfully identified both known and unknown attacks. He continued on as a founder of @stake and continued research on network protocols—including fiber channel and 3G cellular networking. Paul was the last member of the L0pht to remain at Symantec after the acquisition.

John Tan
John Tan joined the L0pht in 1996 contributing to the Full Disclosure movement with an advisory on Novell Netware 3.x. He was part of the L0pht's 1998 US Senate Testimony and published a widely cited essay called CyberUL which pointed out the conflict of interest that exists with the still current model of security certifications for people and products. He has over 20 years experience within the Financial industry and most recently shifted his focus to Health Insurance.

Weld Pond
When Weld Pond (Chris Wysopal) joined the L0pht in 1993 there was no internet connection. He then built the gateway machine using Slackware 1.0 on 24 floppies. Weld was the webmaster of the website where all those hacker t-files from the BBS era could be found. Weld worked on the software side of L0pht researching vulnerabilities, writing advisories, building Netcat for Windows, and making L0phtCrack the first password cracker with a GUI. Weld was part of the 7 person group that testified at the US Senate in 1998 where he spoke about software transparency and liability. He joined @stake with the L0pht acquisition and worked there managing the research team and consulting at top customers like Microsoft until @stake was purchased by Symantec. Weld and Dildog then spun out the @stake static binary analysis technology to create Veracode, where he is co-founder and CTO.


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Who Controls the Controllers—Hacking Crestron IoT Automation Systems

Friday at 12:00 in Track 3
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Ricky "HeadlessZeke" Lawshae Security Researcher, Trend Micro

While you may not always be aware of them or even have heard of them, Crestron devices are everywhere. They can be found in universities, modern office buildings, sports arenas, and even high-end Las Vegas hotel rooms. If an environment has a lot of audio/video infrastructure, needs to interconnect or automate different IoT and building systems, or just wants the shades to close when the TV is turned on, chances are high that a Crestron device is controlling things from behind the scenes. And as these types of environments become the norm and grow ever more complex, the number of systems that Crestron devices are connected to grows as well. But it is in large part because of this complexity that installing and programming these devices is difficult enough without considering adding security. Instead of being a necessity, it's an extra headache that almost always gets entirely passed over. In this talk, I will take a look at different Crestron devices from a security perspective and discuss the many vulnerabilities and opportunities for fun to be found within. I will demonstrate both documented and undocumented features that can be used to achieve full system compromise and show the need to make securing these systems a priority, instead of an afterthought, in every deployment. In short, hijinx will ensue.

Ricky "HeadlessZeke" Lawshae
Ricky "HeadlessZeke" Lawshae is an offensive security researcher for the Advanced Security Research team at Trend Micro. He spends his days breaking interesting things in interesting ways with his focus mainly centered on IoT research. His work has been featured in Forbes, Wired, Ars Technica, Hackaday, and more. He tries his best to be responsible with the vulnerabilities he finds, but despite that his work has also been featured in the likes of Satori, BrickerBot, and JenX. This will be his fourth time speaking at DEF CON, and he has also spoken at Recon, Ruxcon, Insomnihack, and many more. He spends his off-hours reading (mostly comics), drinking (mostly dark beers), and gaming (mostly PS4).


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I'll See Your Missile and Raise You A MIRV: An overview of the Genesis Scripting Engine

Friday at 17:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo, Audience Participation, Tool

Alex Levinson Senior Security Engineer

Dan Borges Hacker

Typically, the activities of a malware attack occur on an execution timeline that generally consists of 3 segments—the vector, the stage, and the persistence. First, a vector, or method of exploitation is identified. This could be anything from logging in over a credentialed method like RDP or SSH and running a malicious payload directly, to exploiting a memory corruption vulnerability remotely. Second, that access is leveraged into running malicious code that prepares the victim for the deployment of persistence (commonly "implant"). While segments one and three have been extensively automated, a effective automated utility for deploying persistence in a dynamic and unified context has yet to present itself.

Enter the Genesis Scripting Engine.

The Genesis Scripting Engine, or Gscript for short, is a framework for building multi-tenant executors for several implants in a stager. The engine works by embedding runtime logic (powered by the V8 Javascript Virtual Machine) for each persistence technique. This logic gets run at deploy time on the victim machine, in parallel for every implant contained with the stager. The Gscript engine leverages the multi-platform support of Golang to produce final stage one binaries for Windows, Mac, and Linux.

This talk will consist of an overview of the origins of the project, a technical deep dive into the inner workings including the modified Javascript VM, a walk through of the CLI utility, and examples of how we've leveraged Gscript in the real world.

Multiple demos involving practical application scenarios will be presented, as well as an opportunity for audience members to submit their own implants and have them built into a hydra on stage in a matter of minutes.

Alex Levinson
Alex Levinson is a Senior Security Engineer at Uber with experience in red teaming, software engineering, and incident response. Outside of Uber, he is a core member of the red team for the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (CCDC), as well as the Competition Director for the Collegiate Penetration Testing Competition (CPTC). Previously, Alex worked as a Senior Consultant and Development Manager at Lares Consulting.


Dan Borges
Dan Borges is an information security professional with over 15 years in computer science. Dan participates in a number of cyber security competitions each year, from being on the National CCDC Red Team, to leading a Blue Team in Pros Versus Joes, and helping run the Collegiate Penetration Testing Competition (CPTC). He has been publishing a blog on infosec education for more than 10 years.


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Booby Trapping Boxes

Saturday at 15:00 in Track 3
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

Ladar Levison Founder, Lavabit LLC

hon1nbo Proprietor, Hacking & Coffee LLC

Ever worry about the hardware you leave behind? In a world where servers are co-located, and notebooks get left in hotel rooms, the ability to resist tampering, and if necessary actively respond to attack, has become increasingly important. And of course everybody knows the best booby traps are the ones you don't know are there. This talk will prepare you for life in 1984, where the maids are evil, and step brothers can't be trusted. Whether your running servers as a high value target, or simply want to protect your Monero private key, this talk will show you to achieve FIPS 140-2 level 4 security, without the FIPS 140-2 level 4 price tag. Specifically, we'll cover acquisition considerations, physical hardening, firmware mitigation, tamper detection and more.

Ladar Levison
Ladar Levison serves as the founder, president, and chief executive of Lavabit, where he has worked the past 14 years. Founded in 2004 (and originally called Nerdshack), Lavabit was created because Mr. Levison believes that privacy is a fundamental, necessary right for a functioning, free and fair democratic society. Presently, Mr. Levison is focused on Lavabit's Dark Mail Initiative, which aims to make end-to-end email encryption automatic and ubiquitous, while continuing to vigorously advocate for the privacy and free speech rights of all. Mr. Levison’s involvement in the internet can be traced to the early days of the world wide web, when he built his first website, in the early nineties for the fledgling Mosiac web browser (from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications).

Prior, Mr. Levison operated a dialup bulletin board service, and worked as a computer technician assembling custom computer systems. With more than 10 years of experience as an independent consultant, Mr. Levison has brought to bear his skills as a project manager, business analyst, systems engineer, software developer, database administrator, systems administrator, and information security specialist.

Mr. Levison’s career has involved working with several dozen multinational companies in the financial, consumer electronics, and retail sectors. The websites Mr. Levison built have drawn millions of visitors, and the software he's written has touched, albeit behind the scenes, the lives of millions more. Over the years, Mr. Levison has written and published numerous technical specifications and authored several editorial pieces. Mr. Levison frequently speaks at a variety of conferences, has appeared as an expert on numerous network television shows, and appeared in several documentaries; including the Oscar winning film, /Citizenfour/.

Mr. Levison has also been involved with several popular free open source software projects. Mr. Levison holds fifteen certifications, with the vast majority from Microsoft and International Business Machines. Mr. Levison received his Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees from Southern Methodist University, where he studied finance, English, political science and computer science. Additionally, Mr. Levison spent a year studying international relations at Georgetown University. A native of San Francisco, California, he currently resides in Dallas, Texas where he lives with his best friend, and principal cheerleader, Princess, the Italian Greyhound he rescued in 2010.

Twitter: @kingladar
Facebook: kingladar

Hon1nbo is a hacker who tinkers for fun and to satisfy the basic human need to light things on fire. Hon1nbo allegedly has a job, where they get paid to take selfies in other people’s secure vaults in the middle of the night. We don’t know if this job is real, or merely a cover story. This possible delusion has taken them around the world entering into some of the largest organizations in both people size and technical expanse, using every possible entry method at their disposal. No domain left without an admin, no email left without a phish, and every office a wolf tail hiding in the air vents.

In addition to their night job, Hon1nbo runs Hacking & Coffee, a small hosting firm in Texas, where excess network capacity abounds, to perform security research and mirror F/OSS repositories. They also provide infrastructure support to a variety community projects, small businesses, and student groups.

A wild Hon1nbo can be spotted at DEF CON, its natural habitat, and identified via their purple tail, ears, and getting into shenanigans.

Twitter: @hon1nbo
Facebook: hon1nbo
Species: Wolf-Dog
Pronouns: them/their/schlee/generalisimo whatever be consistent

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Please do not Duplicate: Attacking the Knox Box and Other Keyed Alike Systems

Friday at 10:30 in Track 3
20 minutes | Demo, Tool

m010ch_ Hacker

Knox Boxes, along with other rapid entry systems are increasing in popularity, as they allow first responders such as police, fire, and paramedics to quickly gain access to a building in the event of an emergency without having to force entry. These devices rely on the security and key control provided by various locks to prevent unauthorized access to buildings. In this talk, I will focus on vulnerabilities of the widely used Knox Box and Medeco cam lock to key duplication attacks. I will demonstrate how a sufficiently skilled attacker could obtain a key that would grant them access to thousands of residential and commercial buildings throughout America, as well as show off new tools designed to streamline the process of duplicating physical keys using CAD and 3D printing. What could possibly go wrong when someone tries to backdoor an entire city?

m010ch_ is a physical security enthusiast and computer science student who spends most of his free time doing terrible things to locks. He enjoys participating in locksport competitions, and can often be found hunched over his desk, poking at small pieces of metal until he gets frustrated.

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Playing Malware Injection with Exploit thoughts

Saturday at 14:00 in Track 3
20 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit

Sheng-Hao Ma CSIE, NTUST

In the past, when hackers did malicious program code injection, they used to adopt RunPE, AtomBombing, cross-process creation threads, and other approaches. They could forge their own execution program as any critical system service. However with increasing process of anti-virus techniques, these sensitive approaches have been gradually proactively killed. Therefore, hackers began to aim at another place, namely memory-level weakness, due to the breakages of critical system service itself.

This agenda will simply introduce a new memory injection technique that emerged after 2013, PowerLoadEx. Based on this concept, three new injection methods will be disclosed as well. These makes good use of the memory vulnerability in Windows to inject malicious behavior into system critical services. The content will cover Windows reverse analysis, memory weakness analysis, how to use and utilize, and so on. The relevant PoC will be released at the end of the agenda.

Sheng-Hao Ma
Sheng-Hao Ma (aaaddress1) is a core member of CHROOT Security Group and TDOHacker security community in Taiwan, he has over ten years of experience in reverse engineering and machine language, and mastered the intel 8086. He expert in Windows vulnerability, reverse engineering.

Moreover, Sheng-Hao Ma has many papers presented in security conferences such as BlackHat Asia Arsenal, BSidesLV, ICNC, MC2015 and CISC, he was also a speaker at HITCON (Hackers In Taiwan Conference), SITCON (Students In Taiwan Conference), iThome#Chatbot.


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Sunday at 13:00 in Track 1
20 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit

Slava Makkaveev Security Researcher, Check Point

Most of modern OS are using sandboxing in order to prevent malicious apps from affecting other apps or even harming the OS itself. Google is constantly reinforcing Android’s sandbox protection, introducing new features to prevent any kind of sandbox bypass.

In this talk we want to shed new light on a less known attack surface which affects all Android devices and allows an attacker to hijack the communication between privileged apps and the disk, bypassing Android’s latest sandbox protection.

The problem begins when privileged apps interact with files stored in exposed areas, and even worse, some of them will unintentionally break the sandbox by insecurely appending such data to its confinements.

Can you imagine if someone could execute code in the context of your keyboard, or install an unwanted app without your consent? Well… It’s hardly within the realm of imagination.

The external storage and network based vulnerabilities we discovered, can be leveraged by the attacker to corrupt data, steal sensitive information or even take control of your device.

Slava Makkaveev
Slava Makkaveev is a Security Researcher at Check Point. Holds a PhD in Computer Science. Slava has found himself in the security field more than seven years ago and since then gained a vast experience in reverse engineering and malware analysis. Recently Slava has taken a particularly strong interest in mobile platforms and firmware security.

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Securing our Nation's Election Infrastructure

Friday at 10:00 in Track 3
20 minutes |

Jeanette Manfra Assistant Secretary, Office of Cybersecurity and Communications, Department of Homeland Security

Fair elections are at the core of every democracy and are of paramount importance to our national security. The confidence in our electoral process is fundamental to ensuring that every vote- and therefore every voice- matters. In recent years, our Nation has become increasingly uneasy about the potential threats to our election infrastructure. The activities to undermine the confidence in the 2016 presidential election have been well documented and the United States (U.S.) Government has assessed that our adversaries will apply lessons learned from the 2016 election and will continue in their attempts to influence the U.S. and their allies' upcoming elections, including the 2018 mid-term elections. As the lead agency for securing the Nation's cyber infrastructure, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has a mission to maintain public trust and protect America's election systems. In January 2017, the DHS Secretary designated election systems as critical infrastructure. This designation means election infrastructure has become a priority in shaping our planning and policy initiatives, as well as how we allocate our resources. DHS is working directly with election officials across 8,000 election jurisdictions and throughout 55 States and territories, to help them safeguard their systems. As the threat environment evolves, DHS will continue to work with state and local partners to enhance our understanding of the threat, share timely and actionable threat information, and provide essential physical and cybersecurity tools and resources available to the public and private sectors to increase security and resiliency. DHS is committed to ensuring that our adversaries never succeed with their campaign to undermine our democracy.

Jeanette Manfra
Jeanette Manfra serves as the National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD) Assistant Secretary for the Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C). She is the chief cybersecurity official for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and supports its mission of strengthening the security and resilience of the nation's critical infrastructure. Prior to this position, Ms. Manfra served as Acting Deputy Under Secretary for Cybersecurity and Director for Strategy, Policy, and Plans for the NPPD.

Previously, Ms. Manfra served as Senior Counselor for Cybersecurity to the Secretary of Homeland Security and Director for Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity on the National Security Council staff at the White House.

At DHS, she held multiple positions in the Office of Cybersecurity and Communications, including advisor for the Assistant Secretary for Cybersecurity and Communications and Deputy Director, Office of Emergency Communications, during which time she led the Department's efforts in establishing the Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network. Before joining DHS, Jeanette served in the U.S. Army as a communications specialist and a Military Intelligence Officer.

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Looking for the perfect signature: an automatic YARA rules generation algorithm in the AI-era

Saturday at 13:00 in Track 3
20 minutes | Demo, Tool

Andrea Marcelli PhD Student and Security Researcher. Politecnico di Torino

Given the high pace at which new malware variants are generated, antivirus programs struggle to keep their signatures up-to-date, and AV scanners suffer from a considerable quantity of false negatives. The generation of effective signatures against new malware variants, while avoiding false positive detections, is a highly desirable but challenging task, typically requiring a substantial portion of human expert’s time. Artificial intelligence techniques can be applied to solve the malware signature generation problem.

The ultimate goal is to develop an algorithm able to automatically create a generalized family signature, eventually reducing threat exposure and increasing the quality of the detection. The proposed technique automatically generates an optimal signature to identify a malware family with very high precision and good recall using heuristics, evolutionary and linear programming algorithms.

In this talk I will present YaYaGen (Yet Another YARA Rule Generator), a tool to automatically generate Android malware signatures. Performances have been evaluated on a massive dataset of millions of applications available in the Koodous project, showing that in a few minutes the algorithm can generate precise ruleset able to catch 0-day malware, better than human generated ones.

Andrea Marcelli
Andrea Marcelli is a PhD Student and Security Researcher at Hispasec Sistemas. He received his M.Sc. degree in Computer Engineering from Politecnico of Torino, Italy, in 2015 and he is currently a third year doctoral student in Computer and Control Engineering at the same institute. His research interests include malware analysis, semi-supervised modeling, machine learning and optimization problems, with main applications in computer security. Since the end of 2016 he has been part of the security research team at Hispasec Sistemas, working on the Koodous project, where he develops new AI-based tools to automate large scale Android malware analysis, including malware clustering, network graph analytics and automatic YARA signatures generation.


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One-Click to OWA

Friday at 13:00 in Track 3
20 minutes | Demo, Tool

William Martin Security & Privacy Senior Associate

With the presense of 2FA/MFA solutions growing, the attack surface for external attackers that have successfully phished/captured/cracked credentials is shrinking. However, many 2FA/MFA solutions leave gaps in their coverage which can allow attackers to leverage those credentials. For example, while OWA may be protected with 2FA, the Exchange Web Services Management API (EWS) offers many of the same features and functionalities without the same protections.

In this talk, I will introduce ExchangeRelayX, an NTLM relay tool that provides attackers with access to an interface that resembles a victim's OWA UI and has many of its functionalities - without ever cracking the relayed credentials.  ExchangeRelayX takes advantage of the gap in some 2FA/MFA solutions protecting Exchange, potentially resulting in a single-click phishing scheme enabling an attacker to exfiltrate sensitive data, perform limited active-directory enumeration, and execute further internal phishing attacks.

William Martin
William Martin is a penetration tester & information security researcher with more than five years of experience in the Information Security Industry. William became an Offensive Security Certified Professional(OSCP) in November of 2015 and is currently a senior associate at RSM US LLP in the Security and Privacy practice with a focus on penetration testing and social engineering.


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SMBetray—Backdooring and breaking signatures

Saturday at 14:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

William Martin Security & Privacy Senior Associate

When it comes to taking advantage of SMB connections, most tools available to penetration testers aim for system enumeration or for performing relay attacks to gain RCE. If signatures are required, or if the victims relayed are not local admins anywhere, that can put a real stint in leveraging SMB to gain any serious footholds in a network. Fortunately, the mentioned attacks are only the tip of the iceberg of the ways to gain RCE with insecure SMB connections – and there’s a new tool to help take full advantage of these opportunities.

William Martin
William Martin is a penetration tester & information security researcher with more than five years of experience in the Information Security Industry. William became an Offensive Security Certified Professional(OSCP) in November of 2015, and is currently a senior associate at RSM US LLP in the Security and Privacy practice with a focus on penetration testing and social engineering.


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You're just complaining because you're guilty: A DEF CON Guide to Adversarial Testing of Software Used In the Criminal Justice System

Saturday at 10:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo

Dr. Jeanna N. Matthews: Associate Professor, Clarkson University and Fellow, Data and Society

Nathan Adams Systems Engineer, Forensic Bioinformatic Services

Jerome Greco Digital Forensics Staff Attorney, Legal Aid Society

Software is increasingly used to make huge decisions about people's lives and often these decisions are made with little transparency or accountability to individuals. If there is any place where transparency, third-party review, adversarial testing and true accountability is essential, it is the criminal justice system. Nevertheless, proprietary software is used throughout the system, and the trade secrets of software vendors are regularly deemed more important than the rights of the accused to understand and challenge decisions made by these complex systems. In this talk, we will lay out the map of software in this space from DNA testing to facial recognition to estimating the likelihood that someone will commit a future crime. We will detail the substantial hurdles that prevent oversight and stunning examples of real problems found when hard won third-party review is finally achieved. Finally, we will outline what you as a concerned citizen/hacker can do. Nathan Adams will demo his findings from reviewing NYC's FST source code, which was finally made public by a federal judge after years of the city's lab fighting disclosure or even review. Jerome Greco will provide his insight into the wider world of software used in the criminal justice system—from technology that law enforcement admits to using but expects the public to trust without question to technology that law enforcement denies when the evidence says otherwise. Jeanna Matthews will talk about the wider space of algorithmic accountability and transparency and why even open source software is not enough.

Dr. Jeanna N. Matthews:
Dr. Matthews is an associate professor of Computer Science at Clarkson University and a 2017-18 fellow at Data and Society. She is member of the Executive Committee of US-ACM, the U.S. Public Policy Committee of ACM and a founding co-chair of their subcommittee on algorithmic transparency and accountability. She was a speaker and DEF CON 23 and 24, both times on the topic of vulnerabilities in virtual networks. Her broader research interests include virtualization, cloud computing, computer security, computer networks and operating systems. Jeanna received her Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of California at Berkeley and is an ACM Distinguished Speaker.


Nathan Adams
Nathan Adams works as a Systems Engineer in Ohio at the forensic DNA consulting firm Forensic Bioinformatic Services. He reviews DNA analyses performed in criminal cases in the US, the UK, and Australia. His focus includes DNA mixture interpretation, statistical weightings of evidence, probabilistic genotyping, and software development. When its disclosure was ordered by a federal judge in 2016, Nathan was part of the first team to independently examine FST, NYC's DNA mixture interpretation program. He helped identify and evaluate previously undisclosed behaviors of the software. Following the team's review and a motion filed by Yale's Media Freedom center and ProPublica, the judge recently ordered the release of the FST source code, which allowed open discourse for the first time since FST was brought online in 2011. He has a BS in Computer Science and is working on an MS in the same, both at Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio.

Jerome Greco
Jerome Greco is a public defender in the Digital Forensics Unit of the Legal Aid Society in New York City. Along with four analysts, he works with attorneys and investigators in all five boroughs on issues involving historical cell-site location information, cell phone extraction, electronic surveillance technology, social media, and hard drive analysis, among other fields. He is currently engaged in challenging the NYPD's use of cell-site simulators, facial recognition, and the execution of overbroad search warrants for electronic devices. Prior to his work with the Digital Forensics Unit, he was a trial attorney in the Legal Aid Society's Manhattan and Staten Island criminal defense offices. He graduated magna cum laude from New York Law School in 2011 and received his B.A. from Columbia University in 2008.


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Sex Work After SESTA/FOSTA

Saturday at 14:30 in Track 2
20 minutes |

Maggie Mayhem MaggieMayhem.Com

Surveillance had been a fact of life for sex workers wherever they have faced prohibition. Only two elements, communication and association, can differentiate between commercial and personal sex, criminal enforcement of prostitution laws have necessarily meant targeting the speech and affiliation of perceived sex workers. Enforcement of this nature is facilitated by profiling, institutional bias, and broad overreaching policies that fundamentally violate individual human rights. This has included condoms as evidence, non-consensual medical screenings, and targeted harassment of black transgender women as well as license plate recording projects and stings that focus disrupting immigration or migrant workers.

For all of its risks, screening potential clients is safer over email than it is in person during a street based negotiation often in an isolated part of town. SESTA (Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act) comes at a time when compelling research demonstrates that Craigslist resulted in a 17% drop in the female homicide rate. SESTA will also put victims at risk by delaying their identification and recovery by eliminating a digital paper trail. Additionally, Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act is a vital protection for a free internet. Subverting SESTA will create greater economic disparity between sex workers and ultimately empower pimps and agencies over independent providers.

Maggie Mayhem
Maggie Mayhem is a sex worker, birth worker, and death worker from San Francisco, CA. She has served on the Board of Directors for the Sex Worker Outreach Project-USA and founded the health, hygiene, and harm reduction project HarmReduxSF. She has been involved in public health since 2003 and is an international advocate for sex worker rights and reproductive justice. She has spoken about sexual biometrics at SxSW; debated pornography at Yale with Gail Dines; shared the history of pre-WWII porn at the University of Toronto; was artist-in-residence at the Museumsquartier in Vienna; talked about developing sex worker centered policy at DymaxiCon in Helsinki; presented her crack pipe distribution project at the Harm Reduction Coalition conference; shared statistics and research on sex workers and violence at the University of Winchester; and examined public mourning in human rights activism at the University of Southampton. Her independent adult website MeetTheMayhems was the recipient of a feminist porn award.

@MsMaggieMayhem // Insta @MaggieMayhem // Web MaggieMayhem.Com //

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An Attacker Looks at Docker: Approaching Multi-Container Applications

Friday at 11:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo

Wesley McGrew Director of Cyber Operations, HORNE Cyber

Containerization, such as that provided by Docker, is becoming very popular among developers of large-scale applications. The good news: this is likely to make your life easier as an attacker.

While exploitation and manipulation of traditional monolithic applications might require specialized experience and training in the target languages and execution environment, applications made up of services distributed among multiple containers can be effectively explored and exploited "from within" using many of the system- and network-level techniques that attackers, such as penetration testers, already know.

The goal of this talk is to provide a hacker experienced in exploitation and post-exploitation of networks and systems with an exposure to containerization and the implications it has on offensive operations. Docker is used as a concrete example for the case study. A hacker can expect to leave this presentation with a practical exposure to multi-container application post-exploitation.

Wesley McGrew
Wesley currently oversees and participates in offense-oriented operations as Director of Cyber Operations for HORNE Cyber. He has presented on topics of penetration testing and and malware analysis at DEF CON and Black Hat USA. He teaches a self-designed course on reverse engineering to students at Mississippi State University, using real-world, high-profile malware samples. Wesley has a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Mississippi State University for his research in vulnerability analysis of SCADA HMI systens.

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80 to 0 in under 5 seconds: Falsifying a medical patient's vitals

Saturday at 16:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo

Douglas McKee Senior Security Researcher for the McAfee Advanced Threat Research team

It seems each day that passes brings new technology and an increasing dependence upon it. The medical field is no exception; medical professionals rely upon technology to provide them with accurate information and base life-changing decisions on this data.

In recent years there has been more attention paid to the security of medical devices; however, there has been little research done on the unique protocols used by these devices. In large, health care systems medical personnel take advantage of to make decisions on patient treatment and other critical care, use central monitoring stations. This information is gathered from many devices on the network using uncommon networking protocols. What if this information wasn't accurate when a doctor prescribed medication? What if a patient was thought to be peacefully resting, when in fact they are under cardiac arrest?

McAfee's Advanced Threat Research team has discovered a weakness in the RWHAT protocol, one of the networking protocols used by medical devices to monitor a patient's condition. This protocol is utilized in some of the most critical systems used in hospitals. This weakness allows the data to be modified by an attacker in real-time to provide false information to medical personnel. Lack of authentication also allows rogue devices to be placed onto the network and mimic patient monitors.

This presentation will include a technical dissection of the security issues inherent in this relatively unknown protocol. It will describe real-world attack scenarios and demonstrate the ability to modify the communications in-transit to directly influence the receiving devices. We will also explore the general lack of security mitigations in the medical devices field, the risks they pose, and techniques to address them. The talk will conclude with a demonstration using actual medical device hardware and a live modification of a patient's critical data.

Douglas McKee
Douglas McKee is a Senior Security Researcher for the McAfee Advanced Threat Research team, focused on finding new vulnerabilities in both software and hardware. Douglas has an extensive background in penetration testing, reverse engineering, malware analysis and forensics and throughout his career has provided software exploitation training to many audiences, including law enforcement.

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Exploiting Active Directory Administrator Insecurities

Saturday at 11:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo

Sean Metcalf CTO, Trimarc

Defenders have been slowly adapting to the new reality: Any organization is a target. They bought boxes that blink and software that floods the SOC with alerts. None of this matters as much as how administration is performed: Pop an admin, own the system. Admins are being dragged into a new paradigm where they have to more securely administer the environment. What does this mean for the pentester or Red Teamer?

Admins are gradually using better methods like two-factor and more secure administrative channels. Security is improving at many organizations, often quite rapidly. If we can quickly identify the way that administration is being performed, we can better highlight the flaws in the admin process.

This talk explores some common methods Active Directory administrators (and others) use to protect their admin credentials and the flaws with these approaches. New recon methods will be provided on how to identify if the org uses an AD Red Forest (aka Admin Forest) and what that means for one hired to test the organization's defenses, as well as how to successfully avoid the Red Forest and still be successful on an engagement.

Some of the areas explored in this talk:

  • Current methods organizations use to administer Active Directory and the weaknesses around them.
  • Using RODCs in the environment in ways the organization didn't plan for (including persistence).
  • Exploiting access to agents typically installed on Domain Controllers and other highly privileged systems to run/install code when that's not their typical purpose.
  • Discovering and exploiting an AD forest that leverages an AD Admin Forest (aka Red Forest) without touching the Admin Forest.

If you are wondering how to pentest/red team against organizations that are improving their defenses, this talk is for you. If you are a blue team looking for inspiration on effective defenses, this talk is also for you to gain better insight into how you can be attacked.

Sean Metcalf
Sean Metcalf is founder and principal consultant at Trimarc ( a consulting company which focuses on improving enterprise Active Directory security. He is one of about 100 people in the world who holds the Microsoft Certified Master Directory Services (MCM) certification, is a former Microsoft MVP, and has presented on Active Directory attack and defense at Black Hat, BSides, DEF CON, DerbyCon, BlueHat, & Shakacon security conferences. He currently provides security consulting services to customers and regularly posts interesting Active Directory security information on his blog,

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Ridealong Adventures—Critical Issues with Police Body Cameras

Saturday at 12:00 in Track 3
45 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit

Josh Mitchell Principal cybersecurity Consultant, Nuix

The police body camera market has been growing in popularity over the last few years. A recent (2016) Johns Hopkins University market survey found 60 different models have been produced specifically for law enforcement use. Rapid adoption is fueling this meteoric increase in availability and utilization. Additionally, device manufactures are attempting to package more and more technology into these devices. This has caused a deficiency in local municipalities' skills and budget to accurately assess the attack surface and exposure to the organization. Furthermore, departmental policies and procedures governing the secure deployment of these devices is largely insufficient.

At DEF CON, we will be introducing tactics, techniques, and procedures to assess the security of these devices. We will cover attacks against the physical devices, RF components, smartphone app's, and desktop software. The capabilities demonstrated and discussed will encompass publicly and privately available technologies. Additionally, the talk will cover multiple products and vendors, shedding light on industry wide issues and trends. Finally, we will be releasing software to detect and track various devices and tie these issues into real world events.

Josh Mitchell
Josh Mitchell (Twitter: @bx_lr) has more than a decade's experience as an information security researcher. He has authored numerous technical documents and presented his findings at conferences, academic discussions, and in the classroom. Josh is an expert at discovering and exploiting vulnerabilities and writing code to protect operating systems and programs. Josh has served in the United States Air Force and held numerous defense contracting roles covering electronic signals intelligence exploitation, electronic warfare, malware analysis, exploit development, and reverse engineering


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Compression Oracle Attacks on VPN Networks

Saturday at 11:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

Nafeez Security Researcher

Security researchers have done a good amount of practical attacks in the past using chosen plain-text attacks on compressed traffic to steal sensitive data. In spite of how popular CRIME and BREACH were, little was talked about how this class of attacks was relevant to VPN networks. Compression oracle attacks are not limited to just TLS protected data. In this talk, we try these attacks on browser requests and responses which usually tunnel their HTTP traffic through VPNs. We also show a case study with a well-known VPN server and their plethora of clients. We then go into practical defenses and how mitigations in HTTP/2's HPACK and other mitigation techniques are the way forward rather than claiming 'Thou shall not compress traffic at all.' One of the things that we would like to showcase is how impedance mismatches in these different layers of technologies affect security and how they don't play well together.

Ahamed Nafeez has a varied offensive security background with some emphasis on browsers, web services, and cryptography. He believes defending is much harder than attacking most of the time and appreciates the variables and challenges defenders have. These days he is interested in writing secure frameworks, automating attacks and more or less trying to learn to write good code.

He has spoken at a few security conferences in the past around web apps, browsers and security analysis of javascript. He tweets at @skeptic_fx and builds his side project in free time, an automated asset discovery/monitoring service.

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One Step Ahead of Cheaters -- Instrumenting Android Emulators

Saturday at 13:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
20 minutes | Demo, Tool

Nevermoe (@n3v3rm03) Security Engineer, DeNA Co., Ltd.

Commercial Android emulators such as NOX, BlueStacks and Leidian are very popular at the moment and most games can run on these emulators fast and soundly. The bad news for game vendors is that these emulators are usually shipped with root permission in the first place. On the other hand, cheating tools developers are happy because they can easily distribute their tools to abusers without requiring the abusers to have a physical rooted device, nor do they need to perform laborious tuning for different Android OS / firmware version. However, luckily for game vendors, commercial Android emulators usually use an x86/ARM mixed-mode emulation for speed-up. As a result, a standard native hooking/DBI framework won't work on this kind of platform. This drawback could discourage the cheating developers.

In this talk, I will introduce a native hooking framework on such a kind of mixed-mode emulators. The talk will include the process start routine of both command-line applications and Android JNI applications as well as how these routines differ on an emulator. The different emulation strategies adopted by different emulators and runtime environments (Dalvik/ART) will also be discussed. Based on these knowledge, I will explain why the existing hooking/DBI frameworks do not work on these emulators and how to make one that works.

Lastly, I will present a demo of using this hooking framework to cheat a game on emulator. With this demo, I will discuss how the dark market of mobile game cheating may develop in the foreseeable future.

Nevermoe (@n3v3rm03)
Nevermoe (@n3v3rm03) is a security engineer in DeNA Co., Ltd. His main focuses are web security, game hacking and reverse engineering. He loves writing tools for game hacking / analyzing and publishing them on

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Reverse Engineering, hacking documentary series

Friday at 17:00 in Track 3
45 minutes | Demo

Michael Lee Nirenberg Director, Restraining Order, Ltd

Dave Buchwald Producer

We will present a sample scene and panel talk on our documentary series Reverse Engineering to the hacking community, which has been in the works for 4 years. We have dozens of interviews spanning the first 3 decades of computer hacking, ultimately there will be hundreds. It's a big story, but for the purposes of DEF CON, we've put together a 17 min. Scene covering the 80s WarGames/Legion of Doom-era of computer hacking in the US.

We've spoken to great people, but there are other viewpoints—this is a history that needs to be told by 1st person accounts. The accuracy and strength of our completed series is tantamount to the quality of who we interview and the questions that get asked. Accuracy is particularly important, there's been no shortage of media hype and lies regarding hacking since the 1980s.

Our vision for this film series is inclusive and collaborative. We'd like to hear from attendees how to best tell the origin story of hacking to new generations, and more so the outside world who've been fed a lot of myths by the media. Those are the lawmakers and citizens of tomorrow that we need to reach. Little attention has been paid to the pioneering hacker spirit that has literally changed every aspect of life. We want to address and correct that.

Michael Lee Nirenberg
Michael Lee Nirenberg—documentary director (Back Issues: The Hustler Magazine Story), writer, blogger, commercial artist for movies and TV

Dave Buchwald
Dave Buchwald—former hacker in the mid-80s ("Bill from RNOC"), film editor (Love Simple, Urchin), film consultant (Hackers) and 2600 Magazine cover artist

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EFF Fireside Hax (AKA Ask the EFF)

Saturday at 20:00 in Roman Chillout
Fireside Hax | Audience Participation

Kurt Opsahl Deputy Executive Director & General Counsel, Electronic Frontier Foundation

Nate Cardozo EFF Senior Staff Attorney

Jamie Lee Williams EFF Staff Attorney

Andrés Arrieta Technology Products Manager

Katiza Rodriguez International Rights Director

Nathan 'nash' Sheard Grassroots Advocacy Organizer

Relax and enjoy a Fireside Hax chat while you get the latest information about how the law is racing to catch up with technological change from staffers at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the nation's premiere digital civil liberties group fighting for freedom and privacy in the computer age. This Fireside Hax discussion will include updates on current EFF issues such as the government's effort to undermine encryption (and add backdoors), the fight for network neutrality, discussion of our technology projects to spread encryption across the Web and emails, updates on cases and legislation affecting security research, and much more. Half the session will be given over to question-and-answer, so it's your chance to ask EFF questions about the law and technology issues that are important to you.

Kurt Opsahl
Kurt Opsahl is the Deputy Executive Director and General Counsel of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. In addition to representing clients on civil liberties, free speech and privacy law, Opsahl counsels on EFF projects and initiatives. Opsahl is the lead attorney on the Coders' Rights Project. Before joining EFF, Opsahl worked at Perkins Coie, where he represented technology clients with respect to intellectual property, privacy, defamation, and other online liability matters, including working on Kelly v. Arribasoft, MGM v. Grokster and CoStar v. LoopNet. For his work responding to government subpoenas, Opsahl is proud to have been called a "rabid dog" by the Department of Justice. Prior to Perkins, Opsahl was a research fellow to Professor Pamela Samuelson at the U.C. Berkeley School of Information Management & Systems. Opsahl received his law degree from Boalt Hall, and undergraduate degree from U.C. Santa Cruz. Opsahl co-authored "Electronic Media and Privacy Law Handbook." In 2007, Opsahl was named as one of the "Attorneys of the Year" by California Lawyer magazine for his work on the O'Grady v. Superior Court appeal. In 2014, Opsahl was elected to the USENIX Board of Directors.


Nate Cardozo
Nate Cardozo is a Senior Staff Attorney on the Electronic Frontier Foundation's digital civil liberties team. In addition to his focus on free speech and privacy litigation, Nate works on EFF's Who Has Your Back? report and Coders' Rights Project. Nate has projects involving cryptography and the law, automotive privacy, government transparency, hardware hacking rights, anonymous speech, electronic privacy law reform, Freedom of Information Act litigation, and resisting the expansion of the surveillance state. A 2009-2010 EFF Open Government Legal Fellow, Nate spent two years in private practice before returning to his senses and to EFF in 2012. Nate has a B.A. in Anthropology and Politics from U.C. Santa Cruz and a J.D. from U.C. Hastings where he has taught first-year legal writing and moot court. He brews his own beer, has been to India four times, and watches too much Bollywood.

Jamie Lee Williams
Jamie Williams is a staff attorney at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, where she is part of EFF's civil liberties team. Jamie focuses on the First and Fourth Amendment implications of new technologies, and is part of EFF's Coder's Rights Project, which protects programmers and developers engaged in cutting-edge exploration of technology. Jamie joined EFF in 2014. Prior to joining EFF, Jamie clerked for Judge Saundra Brown Armstrong in the Northern District of California, and practiced at Paul Hastings LLP, as an associate in the firms' litigation department. Jamie was also a law clerk at the Alameda County Public Defender. Jamie has a J.D. from the University of California, Berkeley School of Law (Boalt Hall) and a B.A. in journalism from the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Andrés Arrieta
Andrés Arrieta is the Technology Projects Manager for the Electronic Frontier Foundation. A Telecom and Electronics Engineer, he previously worked for Mobile Operators managing and developing projects from the Radio and Core networks to IT systems like Spotify Premium for Movistar. Seeing the state of privacy in the digital world from previous experiences, he joins the EFF to help develop tools that address these issues.

Katiza Rodriguez
Katitza Rodriguez is EFF's international rights director. She concentrates on comparative policy of international privacy issues, with special emphasis on law enforcement, government surveillance, and cross border data flows. Her work in EFF's International Program also focuses on cybersecurity at the intersection of human rights. Katitza also manages EFF's growing Latin American programs. She was an advisor to the UN Internet Governance Forum (2009-2010). Before joining EFF, Katitza was director of the international privacy program at the Electronic Privacy Information Center in Washington D.C., where amongst other things, she worked on The Privacy and Human Rights Report,an international survey of privacy law and developments. Katitza is well known to many in global civil society and in international policy venues for her work at the U.N. Internet Governance Forum and her pivotal role in the creation and ongoing success of the Civil Society Information Society Advisory Council at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, for which she served as the civil society liaison while at EPIC from 2008 to March 2010. Katitza holds a Bachelor of Law degree from the University of Lima, Peru. Katitza's twitter handle is @txitua.

Nathan 'nash' Sheard
Nathan 'nash' Sheard is EFF's Grassroots Advocacy Organizer. nash works directly with community members and organizations to take advantage of the full range of tools provided by access to tech, while engaging in empowering action toward the maintenance of digital privacy and information security.

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Revolting Radios

Friday at 14:00 in Track 3
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

Michael Ossmann Great Scott Gadgets

Dominic Spill Great Scott Gadgets

There are many Software Defined Radios (SDRs) available, with a great deal of time and effort having gone in to their design. These are not those radios. We present four radios that we have designed using crude, novel, and sometimes ridiculous methods for transmitting and receiving signals.

The arrival of SDR allowed more hackers than ever to experiment with radio protocols, but we're still using hardware built by other people. In the time honored hacker tradition of rolling our own tools, we'll demonstrate four simple radios that can be home-built using commonly available parts for little to no cost.

Michael Ossmann
Michael is a wireless security researcher who makes hardware for hackers. Best known for the open source HackRF, Ubertooth, and GreatFET projects, he founded Great Scott Gadgets in an effort to put open source hardware into the hands of innovative people.


Dominic Spill
Dominic is a senior security researcher at Great Scott Gadgets, where he builds tools and investigates communications protocols.


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It WISN't me, attacking industrial wireless mesh networks

Saturday at 10:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo

Erwin Paternotte Lead security consultant at Nixu

Mattijs van Ommeren principal security consultant at Nixu

Wireless sensor networks are commonly thought of as IoT devices communicating using familiar short-range wireless protocols like Zigbee, MiWi, Thread and OpenWSN. A lesser known fact is that about a decade ago, two industrial wireless protocols (WirelessHART and ISA100.11a) have been designed for industrial applications, which are based on the common IEEE 802.15.4 RF standard. These Wireless Industrial Sensor Networks (WISN) are used in process field device networks to monitor temperature, pressure, levels, flow or vibrations. The petrochemical industry uses WISN in oil and gas fields and plants around the world.

Both IEC ratified standards have been commonly praised by the ICS industry for their security features, including strong encryption on multiple layers within the protocol stack, resistance to RF interference, and replay protection. While the standards in general look safe on paper, there are potential interesting attack vectors that require verification. However, security research so far has not yielded any significant results beyond basic attack vectors. Often these attacks have only been theorized, and not (publically) demonstrated. In addition, vendor implementations have not been thoroughly tested for security by independent third parties, due to protocol complexity and the lack of proper (hardware/software) tools. We strongly believe in Wright's principle,"Security does not improve until practical tools for exploration of the attack surface are made available."

Erwin Paternotte
Erwin works as a lead security consultant at Nixu Benelux. He has 15 years experience conducting penetration tests and security assessments on a wide variety of systems and technology. In the recent years his focus is shifting towards more advanced tests like red teaming, embedded systems, ICS/SCADA, and telco systems. Within Nixu he is also the practice lead for penetration and security testing.

Mattijs van Ommeren
Mattijs leads the Red Teaming and Hardware Testing team at Nixu Benelux. He has spent most of his career as an information security consultant, both on the offensive as well as the defensive side. Mattijs has a special interest in process automation and industrial systems. Over the years he has discovered numerous vulnerabilities in RTUs, process controllers, industrial firewalls and other equipment. Industrial sensor networks currently have most of his focus, as this is still mainly unexplored terrain.

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ThinSIM-based Attacks on Mobile Money Systems

Thursday at 10:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Rowan Phipps Undergraduate researcher, University of Washington

Phone-based mobile money is becoming the dominant paradigm for financial services in the developing world processing more than a billion dollars per day for over 690 million users. For example, mPesa has an annual cash flow of over thirty billion USD, equivalent to nearly half of Kenya's GDP. Numerous other products exist inside of nearly every other market, including GCash in the Philippines and easyPaisa in Pakistan. As a part of this growth, competitors have appeared who leverage ThinSIMS, small SIM card add ons, to provide alternative mobile money implementations without operating their own mobile networks. However, the security implications of ThinSIMs are not well understood.

This talk dives into decade old telecom standards to explore how ThinSIMs work and what attackers of mobile money systems can do when they control the interface between the SIM card and the phone. We will also demo two proof of concept exploits that use ThinSIMs to steal money from mobile money platforms and detail the difficulties of defense.

Rowan Phipps
Rowan is an undergraduate at the University of Washington where he studies Computer Science. He's a member of Batman's Kitchen and has participated in CTF and CCDC competitions. Last summer he worked in the Digital Financial Services Research Group looking into the security of mobile money. In his spare time he likes to dabble with hardware design.


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Oh Noes!—A Role Playing Incident Response Game

Friday at 20:00 in Roman Chillout
Fireside Hax | Demo, Audience Participation, Tool

Bruce Potter Founder, The Shmoo Group

Robert Potter Hacker

The term"incident response exercise" can strike fear in the hearts of even the mostly steely-eyed professional. The idea of sitting around a table, talking through a catastrophic security event can be both simultaneously exhausting and incredibly boring. However, what instead of an participating in an"incident response exercise," you instead got to plan an"incident response role playing game?"

Enter our IR roleplaying game,"Oh Noes! An Adventure Through the Cybers and Shit." As part of our day job, we do quarterly IR exercises. In order to make these exercises more engaging, more fun, and more useful, we turned these exercises into a role playing game. We found it so useful and fun, we're releasing it at DEF CON along with numerous scenarios for your dungeon master to take you through.

At this talk, we will talk about gamifying IR exercises and the rules of Oh Noes! We will equip you with dice and your own character sheet and we will walk you through the character creating process. That's right, in Oh Noes! you create your own character with specific skills and abilities that you level up as you play. A group of us will play through a short scenario so you can see how the game works. We will provide several sample scenarios, some ripped from the headlines (and some cribbed from @badthingsdaily) as well as provide guidance on what makes successful scenarios as you transition to be your own dungeon master.

Bruce Potter
Bruce Potter is the founder of The Shmoo Group, CISO at Expel, and helps run ShmooCon each year in Washington DC. Bruce has over 20 years (yikes!) of experience in hacking and cyber security including working with DoD an Intelligence Community clients as well as numerous finance, healthcare, and transportation companies. Bruce used to do a lot of wireless and network attack and defense work but lately focuses on risk management, threat categorization, and building more secure systems. Bruce has never played D&D but has a son who plays extensively.


Robert Potter
Robert Potter is a 16 year old 10th grader who wears Invisalign. He is the son of Mr.Bow-To-My-Firewall and Mrs.Heidi"clever name" Potter. He likes things that begin with M, including but not limited to Math, Music, and his Mother (my mom told me to put that there).


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All your family secrets belong to us—Worrisome security issues in tracker apps

Saturday at 16:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Dr. Siegfried Rasthofer Fraunhofer SIT

Stephan Huber Hacker

Dr. Steven Arzt Hacker

Google Play Store provides thousands of applications for monitoring your children/family members. Since these apps deal with highly sensitive information, they immediately raise questions on privacy and security. Who else can track the users? Is this data properly protected? To answer these questions, we analyzed a selection of the most popular tracking apps from the Google Play Store.

Many apps and services suffer from grave security issues. Some apps use self-made algorithms instead of proper cryptography for data storage and transmission. Others do not even attempt to protect their communication at all and make use of the unprotected http protocol, or even give an attacker full access to a vulnerable backend system. Hard coded database credentials in apps allowed access to all stored user locations. We would be able to extract hundreds of thousands of tracking profiles, even in real time. In others, this wasn't even necessary, because the user authentication could be bypassed altogether. Flaws in server API allowed us to extract all user credentials (1.7m plain text passwords), further we saw full communication histories containing messages, pictures and location data.

In total, the state of tracker apps is worrisome, effectively leading to users unknowingly installing espionage software on their devices.

Dr. Siegfried Rasthofer
Siegfried is the head of department Secure Software Engineering at Fraunhofer SIT (Germany) and his main research focus is on

applied software security. He has received a PhD, master's degree and bachelor's degree in computer science and IT-security. He is the founder of the CodeInspect reverse engineering tool and founded TeamSIK.

During his research, he develops tools that combine static and dynamic code analysis for security purposes. Most of his research is published at top tier academic conferences and industry conferences

like DEF CON, BlackHat, AVAR or VirusBulletin.

Stephan Huber
Stephan is a security researcher at the Testlab mobile security group at the Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Information Technology (SIT).

His main focus is Android application security testing and developing new static and dynamic analysis techniques for app security evaluation.

He found different vulnerabilities in well-known Android applications and the AOSP. He gave talks on conferences like DEF CON, HITB, AppSec or VirusBulletin. In his spare time he enjoys teaching students in Android hacking.

Dr. Steven Arzt
Steven is currently a researcher at the Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Information Technology (SIT) in Darmstadt.

He has received a PhD, a master's degree in computer science, and a master's degree in IT Security from Technische Universität Darmstadt.

Steven is one of the core maintainers of the Soot open-source compiler framework that is now used for static analysis and program instrumentation by various research groups around the world. He is also actively maintaining the FLOWDROID open-source static data flow tracker.

His main research interests center on (mobile) security and static and dynamic program analysis applied to real-world security problems, an area in which he has published various research papers over the last years.

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Tineola: Taking a Bite Out of Enterprise Blockchain

Saturday at 12:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

Stark Riedesel Synopsys, Senior Consultant

Parsia Hakimian Synopsys, Senior Consultant

Blockchain adaptation has reached a fever pitch, andthe community is late to the game of securing these platforms against attack. With the open source community enamored with the success of Ethereum, the enterprise community has been quietly building the next generation of distributed trustless applications on permissioned blockchain technologies. As of early 2018, an estimated half of these blockchain projects relied on the Hyperledger Fabric platform.

In this talk we will discuss tools and techniques attackers can use to target Fabric. To this end we are demoing and releasing a new attack suite, Tineola, capable of performing network reconnaissance of a Hyperledger deployment, adding evil network peers to this deployment, using existing trusted peers for lateral network movement with reverse shells, and fuzzing application code deployed on Fabric.

As George Orwell said: "Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past." This talk will demonstrate how a sufficiently armed red team can modify the blockchain past to control our digital future.

Stark Riedesel
Stark Riedesel is a senior consultant at Synopsys with six years of security industry experience. He has filled a variety of roles, including penetration tester, researcher, lecturer, and security architect. Stark’s active areas of research are public and private blockchain platforms, NoSQL-based exploitation techniques, and container orchestration. Outside work,Stark speaks and hosts CTF events at the Dallas, Texas, OWASP chapter and local universities.

Parsia Hakimian
Parsia Hakimian is a senior consultant at Synopsys with seven years of security industry experience. He has worked on enterprise blockchains, online multiplayer games, stock exchange platforms, mobile device management suites, and IoT devices. On a different continent, he was a C developer, university instructor, and single-player game cheater. Parsia is currently evangelizing Golang to the security community and practicing in-memory fuzzing.

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Breaking Extreme Networks WingOS: How to own millions of devices running on Aircrafts, Government, Smart cities and more.

Sunday at 11:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Josep Pi Rodriguez Senior security consultant, IOActive

Extreme network's embedded WingOS (Originally created by Motorola) is an operating system used in several wireless devices such as access points and controllers. This OS is being used in Motorola devices, Zebra devices and Extreme network's devices. This research started focusing in an access point widely used in many Aircrafts by several worldwide airlines but ended up in something bigger in terms of devices affected as this embedded operating system is not only used in AP's for Aircrafts but also in Healthcare, Government, Transportation, Smart cities, small to big enterprises... and more.

Based on public information, we will see how vulnerable devices are actively used (outdoors) in big cities around the world. But also in Universities, Hotels,Casinos, Big companies, Mines, Hospitals and provides the Wi-Fi access for places such as the New york City Subway.

In this presentation we will show with technical details how several critical vulnerabilities were found in this embedded OS. First we will introduce some internals and details about the OS and then we will show the techniques used to reverse engineering the mipsN32 ABI code for the Cavium Octeon processor. It will be discussed how some code was emulated to detect how a dynamic password is generated with a cryptographic algorithm for a root shell backdoor. Besides, it will be shown how some protocols used by some services were reverse engineered to find unauthenticated heap and stack overflow vulnerabilities that could be exploitable trough Wireless or Ethernet connection.

This OS also uses a proprietary layer 2/3 protocol called MiNT. This protocol is used for communication between WingOS devices through VLAN or IP. This protocol was also reverse engineered and remote heap/stack overflow vulnerabilities were found on services using this protocol and will be shown. As a live demonstration, 2 devices will be used to exploit a remote stack overflow chaining several vulnerabilities as the attacker could do inside an aircraft (or other scenarios) through the Wi-Fi. As there are not public shellcodes for mipsN32 ABI, the particularities of creating a Shellcode for mipsN32 ABI will be also discussed.

Josep Pi Rodriguez
Josep Pi Rodriguez is experienced in network penetration and web application testing, reverse engineering, industrial control systems, transportation, RF, embedded systems, vulnerability research, exploit development, and malware analysis. As a senior consultant at IOActive, Mr. Rodriguez performs penetration testing, identifies system vulnerabilities and researches cutting-edge technologies. Mr. Rodriguez has performed security services and penetration tests for numerous global organizations and a wide range of financial, technical, and educational institutions. He has presented at international conferences including Immunity infiltrate, Hack in paris and Japan CCDS iot conference.

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Reaping and breaking keys at scale: when crypto meets big data

Saturday at 13:00 in Track 2
20 minutes | Demo, Audience Participation, Tool

Yolan Romailler Security Researcher at Kudelski Security

Nils Amiet Security Engineer at Kudelski Security

Public keys are everywhere, after all, they are public. These keys are waiting to be reaped by those who know their real value. Hidden behind this public face lurks some potentially dangerous issues which could lead to a compromise of data and privacy.

Leveraging hundreds of minion devices, we built a public key reaping machine (which we are open sourcing) and operated it on a global scale. Collected keys are tested for vulnerabilities such as the recent ROCA vulnerability or factorization using batch-GCD. We've collected over 300 million keys so far and built a database 4 to 10 times bigger than previous public works.

Performing the initial computation on over 300 million keys took about 10 days on a 280 vCPU cluster. Many optimizations allow our tool to incrementally test new RSA keys for common prime factors against the whole dataset in just a few minutes.

As a result of our research, we could have impersonated hundreds of people by breaking their PGP keys, mimicked thousands of servers thanks to their factored SSH keys and performed MitM attacks on over 200k websites relying on vulnerable X509 certificates.

In the end, we were able to do this in an entirely passive way. Going further is possible, but it would lead us to the dark side. Would big brother hesitate to go there?

Yolan Romailler
Yolan Romailler is a Security Researcher at Kudelski Security, where he delves into (and dwells on) cryptography, crypto code, blockchains and other fun things. He has spoken at Black Hat USA, BSidesLV and DEF CON's Cryptovillage on automation in cryptography, vulnerability research, and presented at FDTC 2017 the first known practical fault attack against EdDSA. Yolan tweets as @anomalroil.

Nils Amiet
Nils Amiet is a Security Engineer at Kudelski Security, where he performs big data analytics, leveraging Spark, Hadoop and Chapel clusters to analyze large datasets. He designed a data pipeline to snapshot the whole IPv4 address space for selected network protocols, allowing automated and reproducible offline data analysis. He also built an automated country security ranking. Nils likes open source software, data analytics, distributed systems and data processing.

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Finding Xori: Malware Analysis Triage with Automated Disassembly

Friday at 13:00 in Track 2
20 minutes | Demo, Tool

Amanda Rousseau Senior Malware Researcher at Endgame Inc.

Rich Seymour Senior Data Scientist at Endgame Inc

In a world of high volume malware and limited researchers we need a dramatic improvement in our ability to process and analyze new and old malware at scale. Unfortunately what is currently available to the community is incredibly cost prohibitive or does not rise to the challenge. As malware authors and distributors share code and prepackaged tool kits, the corporate sponsored research community is dominated by solutions aimed at profit as opposed to augmenting capabilities available to the broader community. With that in mind, we are introducing our library for malware disassembly called Xori as an open source project. Xori is focused on helping reverse engineers analyze binaries, optimizing for time and effort spent per sample.

Xori is an automation-ready disassembly and static analysis library that consumes shellcode or PE binaries and provides triage analysis data. This Rust library emulates the stack, register states, and reference tables to identify suspicious functionality for manual analysis. Xori extracts structured data from binaries to use in machine learning and data science pipelines.

We will go over the pain-points of conventional open source disassemblers that Xori solves, examples of identifying suspicious functionality, and some of the interesting things we've done with the library. We invite everyone in the community to use it, help contribute and make it an increasingly valuable tool for researchers alike.

Amanda Rousseau
Amanda Rousseau absolutely loves malware. She works as a Senior Malware Researcher at Endgame who focuses on dynamic behavior detection both on Windows and OSX platforms. She worked as a malware researcher at FireEye before joining Endgame. She previously worked a reverse engineer and computer forensic examiner working for DoD forensic investigations and commercial incident response engagements. She received her MS in Information Systems Engineering from Johns Hopkins University. Research interests include malware evasion techniques, dynamic behavior classification, and developing runtime detections.


Rich Seymour
Rich Seymour is a senior data scientist at Endgame, where he works on integrating R&D successes into the company's platform and experimenting with new techniques to make security sensible. He's currently working on improving natural language understanding in the Artemis chatbot in the Endgame platform and understanding how to catch adversary tradecraft. He holds a PhD in materials science and an MS in computer science, both from the University of Southern California, where he worked on high-performance computing simulations of nanoscale materials under stress. He has spoken at USENIX SOUPS, Shmoocon and O'Reilly Security.


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Synfuzz: Building a Grammar Based Re-targetable Test Generation Framework

Friday at 10:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

Joe Rozner Hacker

Fuzzers have played an important role in the discovery of reliability and security flaws in software for decades. They have allowed for test case generation at a rate impossible by hand and the creation of test cases humans may never conceive of. While there are many excellent fuzzers available most are designed for mutating source files or input in random ways and attempting to discover edge cases in the handling of them. Some others are designed with structured input in mind and use grammars to more strategically generate and mutate possible inputs that adhere to the format defined. These specifically are the ones we care about for the goals of identifying differences between multiple implementations of a single language, finding bugs in parse tree generation/handling of tokens, and handling of the data at runtime once it has been successfully lexically and syntactically analyzed. We'll look at some of the shortcomings of existing fuzzers and discuss the implementation for a new platform designed to make fuzzer creation easier with the goal of being able utilize grammars from the implementations of the languages themselves.

Joe Rozner
Joe (@jrozner) is a software engineer at Prevoty where he has built semantic analysis tools, language runtimes, generalized solutions to common vulnerability classes, and designed novel integration technology leveraging runtime memory patching. He has a passion for reverse engineering, exploitation, teaching, and sharing research with others. He is the undisputed champion of the Brawndo and Booze competition from DEF CONs past with his Irish Car Mutilator winning in both the drink and dip categories.


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Bypassing Port-Security In 2018: Defeating MacSEC and 802.1x-2010

Friday at 15:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

Gabriel Ryan Co-Founder / Principal Security Consultant @ Digital Silence

Existing techniques for bypassing wired port security are limited to attacking 802.1x-2004, which does not provide encryption or the ability to perform authentication on a packet-by-packet basis [1][2][3][4]. The development of 802.1x-2010 mitigates these issues by using MacSEC to provide Layer 2 encryption and packet integrity check to the protocol [5]. Since MacSEC encrypts data on a hop-by-hop basis, it successfully protects against the bridge-based attacks pioneered by the likes of Steve Riley, Abb, and Alva Duckwall [5][6].

In addition to the development of 802.1x-2010, improved 802.1x support by peripheral devices such as printers also poses a challenge to attackers. Gone are the days in which bypassing 802.1x was as simple as finding a printer and spoofing address, as hardware manufacturers have gotten smarter.

In this talk, we will introduce a novel technique for bypassing 802.1x-2010 by demonstrating how MacSEC fails when weak forms of EAP are used. Additionally, we will discuss how improved 802.1x support by peripheral devices does not necessarily translate to improved port-security due to the widespread use of weak EAP. Finally, we will consider how improvements to the Linux kernel have made bridge-based techniques easier to implement and demonstrate an alternative to using packet injection for network interaction. We have packaged each of these techniques and improvements into an open source tool called Silent Bridge, which we plan on releasing at the conference.

Gabriel Ryan
Gabriel Ryan is a penetration tester and researcher with a passion for wireless and infrastructure testing. He currently serves a co-founder and principal security consultant for Digital Silence, a Denver based consulting firm that specializes in impact driven penetration testing and red team engagements.

Prior to joining Digital Silence, Gabriel worked as a penetration tester and researcher for Gotham Digital Silence, contributing heavily to their wireless security practice and regularly performing large scale infrastructure assessments and red teams for Fortune 500 companies. Some of Gabriel's most recent work includes the development of EAPHammer, an 802.11ac focused tool for breaching WPA2-EAP networks. On the side, he serves as a member of the BSides Las Vegas senior staff, coordinating wireless security for the event. In his spare time, he enjoys producing music, exploring the outdoors, and riding motorcycles.


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In Soviet Russia Smartcard Hacks You

Saturday at 13:00 in Track 1
20 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit

Eric Sesterhenn Principal Security Consultant at X41, D-Sec GmbH

The classic spy movie hacking sequence: The spy inserts a magic smartcard provided by the agency technicians into the enemy's computer, ...the screen unlocks... What we all laughed about is possible!

Smartcards are secure and trustworthy. This is the idea smartcard driver developers have in mind when developing drivers and smartcard software. The work presented in this talk not only challenges, but crushes this assumption by attacking smartcard drivers using malicious smartcards.

A fuzzing framework for *nix and Windows is presented along with some interesting bugs found by auditing and fuzzing smartcard drivers and middleware. Among them classic stack and heap buffer overflows, double frees, but also a replay attack against smartcard authentication.

Since smartcards are used in the authentication process, a lot of vulnerabilities can be triggered by an unauthenticated user, in code running with high privileges. During the authors research, bugs were discovered in OpenSC (EPass, PIV, OpenPGP, CAC, Cryptoflex,...), YubiKey drivers, pam_p11, pam_pkc11, Apple smartcardservices...

Eric Sesterhenn
Eric Sesterhenn is working as an IT Security consultant for more than 15 years, working mostly in the areas of source code auditing and penetration testing. His experience in the field includes:

  • Identified vulnerabilities in various software projects including the Linux kernel, and multiple IoT Operating Systems
  • Speaker at nullcon 2018, Internet of Teens (Issues in IoT Operating Systems)
  • Speaker at 30C3 about fingerprinting Java web-applications (lightning talk).
  • Part of the winning team of the Deutsche Post Security Cup 2013.

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All your math are belong to us

Saturday at 15:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit, Audience Participation

sghctoma Lead security researcher @ PR-Audit Ltd., Hungary

First of all, it's math. Not meth. So everybody be cool, I'm not gonna touch your central nervous system stimulant substances. Now that this is established, I can start telling my story. And this story, like all good stories, begins where it ends.

Wait, no, not really.

It begins at a birthday party where the sister of a friend asked if I could help her with MATLAB. No matter how horrible memories I had about MATLAB, I just couldn't say no. So the next day, there was I, sitting in my room, installing the trial. And that's when the hacking started...

Believe me, there were a lot to hack in this case! Several gigabytes of installed materials, a few web servers, cloud integration, clustering capabilities, you name it. These software are bloated, they are basically their own little operating systems.

Yup, I used plural. Because I thought why discriminate MATLAB? I should really give a chance to Maple and Mathematica to fail too!. I did, and they did fail, and these failures gave the material for my talk. Basically this will be a dump of exploits (RCEs, file disclosures, etc.), and if you use any of those software and you are at least a bit security conscious, you should definitely listen to it.

Toma is the lead IT security researcher at PR-Audit Ltd., a company focusing mainly on penetration testing and SIEM software development. Previously he participated in a cooperation between ELTE Department of Meteorology and the Paks Nuclear Power Plant Ltd., the goal of which was to develop TREX, a toxic waste emission simulator using CUDA.

The scene from RoboCop where Nikko defeats the ED-209 with just a laptop and a serial cable made a huge impression on him, and after seeing the movie, his path was set: he was bound to be a hacker. His first experiences in this field involved poking around various copy protection schemes, and to this day his favorite areas of expertise are the ones that require some mangling of binary files. Besides computer security he also loves mountain biking, flight simulators, and builds and flies acro quadcopters.

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House of Roman—a "leakless" heap fengshui to achieve RCE on PIE Binaries

Saturday at 13:30 in 101 Track, Flamingo
20 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Sanat Sharma Hacker

Regarding ptmalloc2, many heap exploitation techniques have been invented in the recent years, well documented on the famous how2heap repository, or as writeups of famous CTF challenges (like House of Orange). However, most of them require atleast a libc/heap leak , or fail in non-PIE binaries. My new technique titled House of Roman leverages a single bug to gain shell leaklessly on a PIE enabled Binary. I shall showcase the ease of aligning the heap to perform this attack, thus demonstrating its versatility.

Since this a 20 mins talk, attendees should be aware of basic heap exploitation techniques, like fastbin attacks and unsorted bin attacks, and have a general idea of how the ptmalloc2 algorithm works. As a bonus, I also discuss how to land a fastbin chunk in memory regions with no size alignment (like __free_hook ).

Sanat Sharma
Sanat (@romanking98) is a 19 y o Junior Security Engineer at GoRoot GmbH in Berlin, Germany. He regularly plays CTFs with "dcua" , globally ranked in the world top 10 teams on , qualified for multiple prestigious onsite finals, including an invitation for DEF CON China offline CTF.


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UEFI exploitation for the masses

Friday at 14:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo

Mickey Shkatov Hacker

Jesse Michael Hacker

So how do you debug bios and triage a vulnerability for exploitability with no stack trace or error log? How do BIOS developers do it? Do not worry! We will explain how anyone can have debug capabilities on modern Intel platforms and show you how this massively simplifies exploit dev. Developing an exploit for a BIOS vulnerability is a different experience than other types of exploit dev. Your available code base to draw from is unlike what you would expect when running at the operating system level and you have no gdb you can use.

In this talk we will summarize BIOS exploitation techniques and dive deeper into the specifics of an exploit we developed to provide reliable arbitrary code execution for an"over-the-internet" bios update vulnerability we found and responsibly disclosed. We will explain the relevant parts of UEFI and talk more about the exploit mitigations that exist there. We will also explain how to explore System Management Mode (SMM) in an Intel based platform, utilizing Intel hardware debug capabilities on an Intel 8th gen platform to obtain SMRAM content, analyze its contents, and search for vulnerable code.

Mickey Shkatov
Mickey Shkatov, a principal researcher at Eclypsium, has been performing security research and product security validation since 2010, He has also presented multiple times at DEF CON A and BlackHat, PacSec, CanSecWest, BruCon, Hackito Ergo Sum, and BSides Portland.


Jesse Michael
Jesse Michael is an experienced security researcher focused on vulnerability detection and mitigation who has worked at all layers of modern computing environments from exploiting worldwide corporate network infrastructure down to hunting vulnerabilities inside processors at the hardware design level. His primary areas of expertise include reverse engineering embedded firmware and exploit development. He has also presented multiple times at DEF CON, PacSec, Hackito Ergo Sum, and BSides Portland.


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Fuzzing Malware For Fun & Profit. Applying Coverage-guided Fuzzing to Find and Exploit Bugs in Modern Malware

Sunday at 15:00 in Track 3
45 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit

Maksim Shudrak Senior Offensive Security Researcher, Salesforce

Practice shows that even the most secure software written by the best engineers contain bugs. Malware is not an exception. In most cases their authors do not follow the best secure software development practices thereby introducing an interesting attack scenario which can be used to stop or slow-down malware spreading, defend against DDoS attacks and take control over C&Cs and botnets. Several previous researches have demonstrated that such bugs exist and can be exploited. To find those bugs it would be reasonable to use coverage-guided fuzzing.

This talk aims to answer the following two questions: ___ we defend against malware by exploiting bugs in them ? How can we use fuzzing to find those bugs automatically ?

The author will show how we can apply coverage-guided fuzzing to automatically find bugs in sophisticated malicious samples such as botnet Mirai which was used to conduct one of the most destructive DDoS in history and various banking trojans. A new cross-platform tool implemented on top of WinAFL will be released and a set of 0day vulnerabilities will be presented.

Do you want to see how a small addition to HTTP-response can stop a large-scale DDoS attack or how a smart bitflipping can cause RCE in a sophisticated banking trojan? If the answer is yes, this is definitely your talk.

Maksim Shudrak
Maksim is a security researcher, hacker who loves vulnerabilities hunting, fuzzing acrobatics and complex malicious samples reversing. Maksim had a change to work on binary instrumentation, Windows operating system emulators and malware analysis at large cyber security companies around the world.,

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Thursday at 14:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes |

Si Independent Security Consultant

Agent X Hacker

In this modern digital age of technically competent adversaries we forget that there may still be a need to conduct old school physical surveillance against a target. Many organisations utilise surveillance teams and these may be in-house in the case of government agencies or third-party teams contracted for a specific task and their targets range from suspected terrorists to people accused of bogus insurance claims.

Whilst most people think that they may never be placed under surveillance some professions increase this probability. For example, if you are a member of the press with sources that you only meet face to face you could be a target especially if the source is a whistleblower or has information that their employer would rather they didn't give to you. Would it seem far-fetched to think that a hacker, security researcher or a member of the EFF could be placed under surveillance? Maybe even some current and former DEF CON speakers and attendees?

These teams are not the lone Private Investigator sat in their car at the bottom of your street but are highly trained individuals whose job is to remain undetected. Their mission is to observe and identify interactions and document everything they see. They aim to be "The Grey Man", that person, when asked to describe, you are unable to. Their techniques have changed very little over decades because they work.

This talk will focus on mobile and foot surveillance techniques used by surveillance teams. It will also include tips on identifying if you are under surveillance and how to make their life difficult.

Si previously served 22 years in the British Army and is now an independent security consultant with over 25 years of combined experience in various security fields. He always tries to follow the mantra "security must make sense".


Agent X
Agent X is a hacker, interested in offensive security, espionage, and operational security. He's been a DEF CON goon for the last twenty years and spent a majority of that time as head of speaker operations. A loud-mouth, he's spoken at DEF CON, Notacon, Shmoocon, Hackcon, Pumpcon, and Hushcon. He travels internationally more than most but not as much as he'd like. He lives in a van down by the river.

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Practical & Improved Wifi MitM with Mana

Friday at 16:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo, Audience Participation, Tool

singe CTO @ SensePost

In 2014, we released the mana rogue AP toolkit at DEF CON 22. This fixed KARMA attacks which no longer worked against modern devices, added new capabilities such as KARMA against some EAP networks and provided an easy to use toolkit for conducting MitM attacks once associated.

Since then, several changes in wifi client devices, including MAC randomisation, significant use of the 5GHz spectrum and an increased variety of configurations has made these attacks harder to conduct. Just firing up a vanilla script gets fewer credentials than it used to.

To address this mana will be re-released in this talk with several significant improvements to make it easier to conduct rogue AP MitM attacks against modern devices and networks.

After years of using mana in many security assessments, we've realised rogue AP'ing and MitM'ing is no simple affair. This extended talk will provide an overview of mana, the new capabilities and features, and walk attendees through three scenarios and their nuances:

  • Intercepting corporate credentials at association (PEAP/EAP-GTC)
  • Targeting one or more devices for MitM & collecting credentials
  • "Snoopy" style geolocation & randomised MAC deanonymization

As a bonus, you'll be able to download a training environment to practise all of this without requiring any wifi hardware (or breaking any laws).

singe has been hacking for 14 years, the last 8 of them at SensePost. He is the primary author of mana-toolkit and has developed wifi hacking training for places like BlackHat.


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Jailbreaking the 3DS through 7 years of hardening

Saturday at 11:00 in Track 3
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

smea Hacker

The 3DS was one of Nintendo's first serious attempts at security, featuring a cool microkernel based OS and actual exploit mitigations. That didn't stop it from getting hacked pretty hard, making it possible for people to write their own homebrew software for the console. But Nintendo isn't one to back off from a fight and, as a result, has put significant effort into not only fixing vulnerabilities but also introducing new security features targeted specifically at killing exploit techniques used by hackers. This talk will describe hacking the console through all these defensive features by walking through a 0-day exploit chain that takes us all the way from zero access to a full system jailbreak.

smea got his start making video games for closed consoles like the Nintendo DS using whatever hacks were available at the time. At some point consoles started getting actual security features and he transitioned from simply making homebrew software to making the jailbreaks that let people run it. He's best known for his work on the Nintendo 3DS and Wii U but has also done exploitation work against high profile web browsers and virtualization stacks.


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Privacy Is Equality—And It's Far from Dead

Saturday at 20:00 in Octavius 13
Fireside Hax

Sarah St. Vincent Researcher/Advocate on National Security, Surveillance, and Domestic Law Enforcement, Human Rights Watch

A talk at DEF CON 25 claimed that privacy is "gone and never coming back." This talk offers a different view, inviting the audience to see privacy as fundamentally about equality-something we have never fully had but also should never regard as gone.

The speaker is a human rights lawyer and investigator, and will draw on decades of human rights thinking about state surveillance as well as her 2017 revelations about Defense Department monitoring of "homegrown violent extremists." Adopting a feminist and race-conscious perspective and inviting audience participation, the talk will challenge received wisdom about basic concepts such as privacy, national security, the warrant requirement, and online radicalization. With a view to the future, it will also offer a thought-provoking history of the connections between privacy and equality in the United States-and the ways unchecked surveillance operates to categorize us and reinforce divisions between us.

It is easy to forget that _1984_ was partly a story about poverty and economic inequality. This talk embraces Orwell's insight into the connection between the erosion of privacy and a dangerous loss of equality, and carries it forward.

Sarah St. Vincent
Sarah St. Vincent is a researcher and advocate on national security, surveillance, and domestic law enforcement for the US Program at Human Rights Watch. She has investigated and documented the deliberate concealment of surveillance-based and other evidence from US criminal defendants, the Defense Department's monitoring of "homegrown violent extremists," and the potential use of US intelligence surveillance for anti-drug purposes. Before joining Human Rights Watch, she was a legal fellow on international human rights and surveillance at the Center for Democracy & Technology. She writes regularly about surveillance, privacy, and related issues under US and European Union law and is a member of the New York bar.


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Inside the Fake Science Factory

Saturday at 16:00 in Track 3
45 minutes |

Dr Cindy Poppins - Computer Scientist (AKA Svea Eckert)

Dr Dade Murphy - Reformed Hacker (AKA Suggy)

Professor Dr Edgar Munchhausen – Struwwelpeter Fellow (AKA Till Krause)

Fake News has got a sidekick and it's called Fake Science. This talk presents the findings and methodology from a team of investigative journalists, hackers and data scientists who delved into the parallel universe of fraudulent pseudo-academic conferences and journals; Fake science factories, twilight companies whose sole purpose is to give studies an air of scientific credibility while cashing in on millions of dollars in the process. Until recently, these fake science factories have remained relatively under the radar, with few outside of academia aware of their presence; but the highly profitable industry is growing significantly and with it, so are the implications. To the public, fake science is indistinguishable from legitimate science, which is facing similar accusations itself. Our findings highlight the prevalence of the pseudo-academic conferences, journals and publications and the damage they can and are doing to society.

Svea Eckert
Svea is a freelance journalist for Germany’s main public service broadcaster “Das Erste” (ARD). She is researching and reporting investigative issues with main focus on new technology, computer and network security, digital economics and data protection. Svea’s academic alter ego is Dr Cindy Poppins, a well-known computer scientist from the University of Applied Sciences of Lower Saxony at Wiepenkathen, Germany. Dr Poppin’s main focus lies on novel solutions for the analysis of agents. She recently discovered COP, an algorithm which improves compact technology and suffix trees, winning her the best presentation award at an international conference.


Chris "Suggy" Sumner
Suggy is the lead researcher and co-founder of the not-for-profit Online Privacy Foundation, who contribute to the field of psychological research in online contexts. He has authored papers and spoken on this topic at DEF CON, other noteworthy conferences and a fake conference. For the past five years, Suggy has served as a member of the DEF CON CFP review board. Suggy’s academic alter ego is Dr Dade Murphy, a reformed hacker whose eagerly anticipated work on polymorphic machine learning defences for Gibson mainframe computers was recently accepted at an international cyber security conference.


Till Krause
Till is an editor and investigative reporter at Süddeutsche Zeitung Magazine, the supplement of Germany’s major broadsheet newspaper. Ever since he studied Electronic Communication Arts as a Fulbright Scholar in the Bay Area in 2005, he is interested in all things tech, writing about surveillance, data protection and cybercrime. Till’s academic alter ego is Professor Dr. Edgar Munchhausen, a Struwwelpeter Fellow for Applied Sciences at various universities in Europe and Asia and a renowned researcher who has published his research in countless peer-reviewed journals. He holds a PhD from the University of Wiepenkathen and is a laureate of the Horst Schimanski Award and CEO of IOIR, the Institute of International Research.

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Hacking BLE Bicycle Locks for Fun and a Small Profit

Sunday at 14:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

Vincent Tan Senior Security Consultant, MWR InfoSecurity

Hack a lock and get free rides! (No free beer yet though...). This talk will explore the ever growing ride sharing economy and look at how the BLE "Smart" locks on shared bicycles work. The entire solution will be deconstructed and examined, from the mobile application to its supporting web services and finally communications with the lock. We will look at how to go about analysing communications between a mobile device and the lock, what works, what doesn't.

Previous talks on attacking BLE targeted the protocol itself using various hardware and software such as Ubertooth and Wireshark, which could be potentially difficult for someone new wanting to explore BLE and the ever connected IoT world. I'll simplify and stupidify the entire process such that anyone with a mobile phone and basic experience with Frida can go about breaking locks and hacking BLE the world over.

Vincent Tan
Vincent is a Senior Security Consultant at MWR Labs (the forefront of innovation and research in cyber security). He has a passion for all things"mobile" and anything"wireless". Vincent spends most of his free time focused on reverse engineering esoteric protocols, mobile devices and all things IOT to make the real(cyber)world a better and (where possible) a safer place to be for all. (All this while trying to survive by getting free rides.) Singaporean by birth, Vincent defies the local stereotype of accepting "cannot" for an answer and lives in a world of only pure possibility.

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You can run, but you can't hide. Reverse engineering using X-Ray.

Friday at 13:30 in 101 Track, Flamingo
20 minutes |

George Tarnovsky Engineer, Cisco Systems

Most of us have knowledge of PCB construction. In the past reversing someone's design was an easy task due to the simplicity of the PCB design. Now with BGA's( Ball Grid Array's), manufacturers using several plane layers cover the entire PCB design and obscuring the details of the PCB from view. Thru the use of X-Ray, we are able to reverse engineer virtually anything. Slides will be presented show several PCB designs and how easy it was to reverse engineer the PCB. Also presenting videos of live views and dynamic zoom; this will demonstrate the true power of the X-Ray and its ability to see sub-micron features within the PCB structure and devices while manipulating the PCB.

George Tarnovsky
George Tarnovsky has been working a Design Engineer since the 80's. His designs for industries such as: Industrial process control instrumentation, Visible light spectroscopy, Semiconductor FAB instrumentation, Smart card security & countermeasures, Automotive systems vulnerability. George holds several patents, has given papers at many internal conferences, and currently continues to expand FPGA designs vulnerability and hardening.

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Weaponizing Unicode: Homographs Beyond IDNs

Friday at 15:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo, Tool

The Tarquin Senior Security Engineer,

Most people are familiar with homograph attacks due to phishing or other attack campaigns using Internationalized Domain Names with look-alike characters. But homograph attacks exist against wide variety of systems that have gotten far less attention. This talk discusses the use of homographs to attack machine learning systems, to submit malicious software patches, and to craft cryptographic canary traps and leak repudiation mechanisms. It then introduces a generalized defense strategy that should work against homograph attacks in any context.

The Tarquin
The Tarquin is a security engineer at His security background is in browser development and application security. His hacking background is mainly in attempting to maximize the absurdity content of systems. He also studied philosophy, specializing in the Phenomenology of Technology and seeks to understand the ways in which our systems help the human brain lie to itself. His years as a dev have given him a bad habit of needling red teamers. His years in philosophy have given him a bad habit of switching sides in an argument seemingly at random.

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The Road to Resilience: How Real Hacking Redeems this Damnable Profession

Saturday at 17:00 in Track 1
45 minutes |

Richard Thieme, a.k.a. neural cowboy Author and professional speaker, ThiemeWorks

Two years ago Richard Thieme spoke on “Playing Through the Pain: The Impact of Dark Knowledge on Security and Intelligence Professionals” for Def Con 24. He relied on dozens of experiences provided by colleagues over a quarter-century, colleagues from NSA, CIA, corporate, and military. Responses to the presentation have often been emotional and have corroborated his thesis. The real impact of this work on people over the long term has to be mitigated by counter-measures and strategies so scars can be endured or,even better,incorporated and put to use.

In this presentation, Thieme elaborates those strategies and counter-measures. In what is likely his final speech at Def Con, he speaks directly to the “human in the machine” AS a human being. It’s not about leaving the profession: it’s about what we can do to thrive and transcend the challenges. It‘s about “saving this space,” this play space of hacking, work and life, and knowing the cost of being fully human while encountering dehumanizing impacts.

It is easier to focus on exploits, cool tools, zero days, and the games we play in the space that “makes us smile.” It is not so easy to know how to play through the pain successfully. The damage to us does not show up in brain scans. It shows up in our families, our relationships, and our lives.

Thieme is not preaching, he is sharing insights based on what he too has had to transcend in his own life. They call a lot of us “supernormals,” which means we discovered resilient responses to deprivation, abuse, profound loss … or the daily challenges of work that makes clear that evil is real. We are driven, we never quit, we fight through adversity, we create and recreate personas that work, we do what has to be done. It pays to know how we do that and know THAT we know so we can recreate resilience in the face of whatever comes our way.

A contractor for NSA suggested that everyone inside the agency should see the video of “Playing Through the Pain.” A long-time Def Con attendee asks all new hires to watch “Staring into the Abyss,” a talk Thieme did a few years before. This subject matter is seldom discussed aloud “out here” and by all accounts is not taken seriously “inside,” which is perhaps why there have been half a dozen suicides lately at NSA and a CIA veteran said, “I have 23 suicides on my mind, the most recent senior people who could not live with what they knew.”

The assumption baked into this talk: real hacking, its ethos and its execution, provides the tools we need to do this damn thing right.

This talk is in honor of Perry Barlow and the EFF.

Richard Thieme
Richard Thieme ( is an author and professional speaker focused on the deeper implications of technology, religion, and science for twenty-first century life. He speaks professionally about the challenges posed by new technologies and the future, how to redesign ourselves to meet these challenges, and creativity in response to radical change. His speaking generally addresses “the human in the machine,” technology-related security and intelligence issues as they come home to our humanity.

Thieme has published hundreds of articles, dozens of short stories, five books with more coming, and has delivered hundreds of speeches. His pre-blog column, "Islands in the Clickstream," was distributed to thousands of subscribers in sixty countries before collection as a book in 2004. When a friend at the NSA told him, "The only way you can tell the truth [that we discuss} is through fiction," he returned to writing short stories, one result of which is "Mind Games," a collection of nineteen stories about anomalies, infosec, professional intelligence and edgy realities. More edgy realities are illuminated in the recently published and critically extolled “UFOs and Government: A Historical Inquiry” to which he contributed, a 5-year research project using material from inside the military and intelligence communities to document government responses to the phenomena from WW2 to the present. It is in the collections of 100+ libraries. He is primary editor for a sequel which is in the works.

Many speeches address technology-related security and intelligence issues. Richard keynoted the first two Black Hats and has keynoted conferences around the world. Clients range from GE, Microsoft and Medtronic to the National Security Agency, the Pentagon, FBI, US Dept of the Treasury, and the US Secret Service. His work has been taught at universities in Europe, Australia, Canada, and the United States, and he has guest lectured at numerous universities.

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Breaking Parser Logic: Take Your Path Normalization Off and Pop 0days Out!

Friday at 12 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit

Orange Tsai Security Researcher from DEVCORE

We propose a new exploit technique that brings a whole-new attack surface to defeat path normalization, which is complicated in implementation due to many implicit properties and edge cases. This complication, being under-estimated or ignored by developers for a long time, has made our proposed attack vector possible, lethal, and general. Therefore, many 0days have been discovered via this approach in popular web frameworks written in trending programming languages, including Python, Ruby, Java, and JavaScript.

Being a very fundamental problem that exists in path normalization logic, sophisticated web frameworks can also suffer. For example, we've found various 0days on Java Spring Framework, Ruby on Rails, Next.js, and Python aiohttp, just to name a few. This general technique can also adapt to multi-layered web architecture, such as using Nginx or Apache as a proxy for Tomcat. In that case, reverse proxy protections can be bypassed. To make things worse, we're able to chain path normalization bugs to bypass authentication and achieve RCE in real world Bug Bounty Programs. Several scenarios will be demonstrated to illustrate how path normalization can be exploited to achieve sensitive information disclosure, SMB-Relay and RCE.

Understanding the basics of this technique, the audience won't be surprised to know that more than 10 vulnerabilities have been found in sophisticated frameworks and multi-layered web architectures aforementioned via this technique.

Orange Tsai
Cheng-Da Tsai, also as known as Orange Tsai, is member of DEVCORE and CHROOT from Taiwan. He has spoken at conferences such as Black Hat USA, Black Hat ASIA, DEF CON, HITCON, HITB, CODEBLUE and WooYun. He participates in numerous Capture-the-Flags (CTF), and won 2nd place in DEF CON 22/25 as team member of HITCON.

Currently, he is focusing on vulnerability research and web application security. Orange enjoys finding vulnerabilities and participating in Bug Bounty Programs. He is enthusiastic about Remote Code Execution (RCE), and uncovered RCEs in several vendors, such as Facebook, Uber, Apple, GitHub, Amazon, Yahoo and Imgur.

@orange_8361, Blog:

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Compromising online accounts by cracking voicemail systems

Friday at 13:00 in Track 1
20 minutes | Demo, Audience Participation, Tool

Martin Vigo Hacker

Voicemail systems have been with us since the 80s. They played a big role in the earlier hacking scene and re-reading those e-zines, articles and tutorials paints an interesting picture. Not much has changed. Not in the technology nor in the attack vectors. Can we leverage the last 30 years innovations to further compromise voicemail systems? And what is the real impact today of pwning these?

In this talk I will cover voicemail systems, it's security and how we can use oldskool techniques and new ones on top of current technology to compromise them. I will discuss the broader impact of gaining unauthorized access to voicemail systems today and introduce a new tool that automates the process.

Martin Vigo
Martin Vigo is a Lead Product Security Engineer and Researcher responsible for Mobile security, Identity and Authentication. He helps design secure systems and applications, conducts security reviews, penetration testing and generally helps keep "the cloud" secure. Martin is also involved in educating developers on security essentials and best practices.

Martin has presented several topics including breaking password managers, exploiting Apple's Facetime to create a spy program and mobile app development best practices. These were given at conferences such as Blackhat EU, Ekoparty, Kaspersky Security Analyst Summit and Shakacon.

Outside the office, Martin enjoys research, bug bounties, gin tonics and scuba diving.


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Attacking the macOS Kernel Graphics Driver

Sunday at 12:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Yu Wang Senior Staff Engineer at Didi Research America

Just like the Windows platform, graphic drivers of macOS kernel are complicated and provide a large promising attack surface for EoPs and sandbox escapes from low-privileged processes. After auditing part of the binaries, I discovered a number of vulnerabilities last year. Including, NULL pointer dereference, stack-based buffer overflow, arbitrary kernel memory read and write, use-after-free, etc. Some of these vulnerabilities were reported to Apple Inc., such as the CVE-2017-7155, CVE-2017-7163, CVE-2017-13883.

In this presentation, I will share with you the detailed information about these vulnerabilities. Furthermore, from the attacker's perspective, I will also reveal some new exploit techniques and zero-days.

Yu Wang
Yu Wang is a senior staff engineer at Didi Research America. He has previously presented on Syscan360 2012/2013, Hitcon 2013, Black Hat USA 2014, Black Hat ASIA 2016, Black Hat USA Arsenal 2018 and other conferences.

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Fire & Ice: Making and Breaking macOS Firewalls

Saturday at 14:30 in Track 3
20 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit

Patrick Wardle Chief Research Officer, Digita Security

In the ever raging battle between malicious code and anti-malware tools, firewalls play an essential role. Many a malware has been generically thwarted thanks to the watchful eye of these products.

However on macOS, firewalls are rather poorly understood. Apple's documentation surrounding it's network filter interfaces is rather lacking and all commercial macOS firewalls are closed source.

This talk aims to take a peek behind the proverbial curtain revealing how to both create and 'destroy' macOS firewalls.

In this talk, we'll first dive into what it takes to create an effective firewall for macOS. Yes we'll discuss core concepts such as kernel-level socket filtering—but also how to communicate with user-mode components, install privileged code in a secure manner, and simple ways to implement self-defense mechanisms (including protecting the UI from synthetic events).

Of course any security tool, including firewalls, can be broken. After looking at various macOS malware specimens that proactively attempt to detect such firewalls, we'll don our 'gray' (black?) hats to discuss various attacks against these products. And while some attacks are well known, others are currently undisclosed and can generically bypass even today's most vigilant Mac firewalls.

But all is not lost. By proactively discussing such attacks, combined with our newly-found understandings of firewall internals, we can improve the existing status quo, advancing firewall development. With a little luck, such advancements may foil, or at least complicate the lives of tomorrow's sophisticated Mac malware!

Patrick Wardle
Patrick Wardle is the Chief Research Officer at Digita Security and founder of Objective-See. Having worked at NASA and the NSA, as well as presented at countless security conferences, he is intimately familiar with aliens, spies, and talking nerdy. Patrick is passionate about all things related to macOS security and thus spends his days finding Apple 0days, analyzing macOS malware and writing free open-source security tools to protect Mac users.


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The Mouse is Mightier than the Sword

Sunday at 10:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Patrick Wardle Chief Research Officer, Digita Security

In today's digital world the mouse, not the pen is arguably mightier than the sword. Via a single click, countless security mechanisms may be completely bypassed. Run untrusted app? click ...allowed. Authorize keychain access? click ...allowed. Load 3rd-party kernel extension? click ...allowed. Authorize outgoing network connection? click ...allowed. Luckily security-conscious users will (hopefully) heed such warning dialogues—stopping malicious code in its tracks. But what if such clicks can be synthetically generated and interact with such prompts in a completely invisible way? Well, then everything pretty much goes to hell.

Of course OS vendors such as Apple are keenly aware of this 'attack' vector, and thus strive to design their UI in a manner that is resistant against synthetic events. Unfortunately they failed.

In this talk we'll discuss a vulnerability (CVE-2017-7150) found in all recent versions of macOS that allowed unprivileged code to interact with any UI component including 'protected' security dialogues. Armed with the bug, it was trivial to programmatically bypass Apple's touted 'User-Approved Kext' security feature, dump all passwords from the keychain, bypass 3rd-party security tools, and much more! And as Apple's patch was incomplete (surprise surprise) we'll drop an 0day that (still) allows unprivileged code to post synthetic events and bypass various security mechanisms on a fully patched macOS box!

And while it may seem that such synthetic interactions with the UI will be visible to the user, we'll discuss an elegant way to ensure they happen completely invisibly!

Patrick Wardle
Patrick Wardle is the Chief Research Officer at Digita Security and founder of Objective-See. Having worked at NASA and the NSA, as well as presented at countless security conferences, he is intimately familiar with aliens, spies, and talking nerdy. Patrick is passionate about all things related to macOS security and thus spends his days finding Apple 0days, analyzing macOS malware and writing free open-source security tools to protect Mac users.


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Welcome To DEF CON & Badge Maker Talk

Friday at 10:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo

The Dark Tangent

The Dark Tangent

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barcOwned—Popping shells with your cereal box

Sunday at 13:00 in Track 3
20 minutes | Demo

Michael West Technical Advisor at CyberArk

magicspacekiwi (Colin Campbell) Web Developer

Barcodes and barcode scanners are ubiquitous in many industries and work with untrusted data on labels, boxes, and even phone screens. Most scanners also allow programming via barcodes to manipulate and inject keystrokes. See the problem? By scanning a few programming barcodes, you can infect a scanner and access the keyboard of the host device, letting you type commands just like a Rubber Ducky. This culminates in barcOwned—a small web app that allows you to program scanners and execute complex, device-agnostic payloads in seconds. Possible applications include keystroke injection (including special keys), infiltration and exfiltration of data on air-gapped systems, and good ol' denial of service attacks.

Michael West
Michael West, aka T3h Ub3r K1tten, is a National Technical Advisor at CyberArk who likes cats. His homelab has over 640 kilobytes of RAM. Michael presents regularly at Dallas Hackers Association and enjoys combining his software dev background with infosec to build tools for others. His interests include OSINT, amateur radio, and scanning long barcodes on the beach.


magicspacekiwi (Colin Campbell)
magicspacekiwi, aka Colin Campbell, is a Web Developer with a focus on user experience and considers security an important (but often neglected) part of that experience. They've managed to log over 1500 hours in Overwatch while being stuck in plat. Ask them about their nginx configs.

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Disrupting the Digital Dystopia or What the hell is happening in computer law?

Friday at 20:00 in Octavius 13
Fireside Hax | Audience Participation

Nathan White Senior Legislative Manager, Access Now

Nate Cardozo Senior Staff Attorney, EFF

1984 didn't just happen because of a calendar. The world of 1984 was built by politicians who used the rule of law to change society into an oppressive surveillance state. In Washington D.C., politicians today are making decisions about what technologies we're permitted to use and how they'll be used in society. In this talk we'll break down 4-5 bills currently under discussion in Congress and explain who they'll impact the DEF CON community.

Nathan White
Nathan White spent five years working for the U.S. congress before starting a political consulting firm as a registered lobbyist. He now serves as the Senior Legislative Manager for Access Now, where he works to defend our digital rights. He has run political and issue campaigns from Maui to Maryland to Melbourne. He helped advocacy campaigns including the fight to save Net Neutrality at the FCC (2015) and the USA FREEDOM Act in Congress. At Access Now he co-organized the Crypto Summit and Crypto Summit 2.0. He worked to build the campaign and helped create the international coalition to Secure The Internet ( He works everyday to educate Washington D.C. beltway types about our community.


Nate Cardozo
Nate Cardozo is a Senior Staff Attorney on EFF's civil liberties team where he focuses on cybersecurity policy and defending coders' rights. Nate has litigated cases involving electronic surveillance, freedom of information, digital anonymity, online free expression, and government hacking. His other projects include defending encryption, fighting software export controls, preserving automotive privacy, and assisting surveillance law reform efforts. As an expert in technology law and civil liberties, Nate works on EFF's Who Has Your Back report and regularly assists companies in crafting rights-preserving policies and advising on compliance with legal process. When he's not brewing beer with his EFF colleagues, Nate serves on the boards of directors of the First Amendment Coalition and the South Asian Film Preservation Society. Nate has a B.A. in Anthropology and Politics from U.C. Santa Cruz and a J.D. from U.C. Hastings where he has taught first-year legal writing and moot court.

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Betrayed by the keyboard: How what you type can give you away

Sunday at 14:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
45 minutes |

Matt Wixey Vulnerability R&D Lead, PwC

Attribution is hard. Typically, the most useful identifiers—IP addresses, email address, domains, and so on—are also the easiest things to spoof, obfuscate, or anonymise. Whilst more advanced techniques, such as correlating malicious activity with timezones, or linking attacks through the use of similar techniques or malware, can be useful, they tend to take investigators further away from the individuals responsible; at best, some inference about the country or specific actor group/collective can be made.

In this talk, I present a method for linking incidents to individual attackers with a high degree of accuracy, based on extremely fine-grained behavioural characteristics. This involves an investigatory technique known as "case linkage analysis" (CLA), which uses granular aspects of crime scene behaviours to link common offenders together through statistical comparison. It's been applied to some crime types before, but never to cyber attacks.

I'll cover how CLA works, its advantages and disadvantages, and how it has previously been applied to a range of crimes, from burglary to homicide. I'll place it within the context of personality psychology, biometrics, forensic criminology, offender profiling, and forensic linguistics; and will walk through applying it practically.

I'll then show the results of a novel experiment I conducted applying CLA to network intrusion attacks, which involved logging the keystrokes of volunteer attackers across different simulated intrusions, breaking these down into specific behaviours and syntax, and using these to link individuals to their offences. The end result: the way you type commands, including your choice and order of syntax, switches, and options, can form distinctive behavioural signatures, which can be used to link attackers together. Linking accuracy rates as high as 99% were achieved.

Finally, I'll talk about the implications for both defenders and everyone else (particularly focusing on the privacy implications), explore ways in which these techniques could be defeated, and outline some ideas for future research in these areas.

Matt Wixey
Matt leads technical research for the PwC Cyber Security practice in the UK, works on its Ethical Hacking team, and is a PhD candidate at University College London. Prior to joining PwC, Matt led a technical R&D team for a law enforcement agency in the UK. His research interests include antivirus and sandboxing technologies, unconventional attack vectors, side-channels, and radio security.


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Hacking the Brain: Customize Evil Protocol to Pwn an SDN Controller

Friday at 13:30 in Track 2
20 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Feng Xiao Hacker

Jianwei Huang Hacker

Peng LiuRaymond G. Tronzo, M.D. Professor of Cybersecurity

Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is now widely deployed in production environments with an ever-growing community. Though SDN's software-based architecture enables network programmability, it also introduces dangerous code vulnerabilities into SDN controllers. However, the decoupled SDN control plane and data plane only communicate with each other with pre-defined protocol interactions, which largely increases the difficulty of exploiting such security weaknesses from the data plane.

In this talk, we extend the attack surface and introduce Custom Attack, a novel attack against SDN controllers that leverages legitimate SDN protocol messages (i.e., the custom protocol field) to facilitate Java code vulnerability exploitation. Our research shows that it was possible for a weak adversary to execute arbitrary command or manipulate data in the SDN controller without accessing the SDN controller or any applications, but only controlling a host or a switch.

To the best of our knowledge, Custom Attack is the first attack that can remotely compromise SDN software stack to simultaneously cause multiple kinds of attack effects in SDN controllers. Till now we have tested 5 most popular SDN controllers and their applications and found all of them are vulnerable to Custom Attack in some degree. 14 serious vulnerabilities are discovered, all of which can be exploited remotely to launch advanced attacks against controllers (e.g., executing arbitrary commands, exfiltrating confidential files, crashing SDN service, etc.).

This presentation will include:

  • an overview of SDN security research and practices.
  • a new attack methodology for SDN that is capable of compromising the entire network.
  • our research process that leads to these discoveries, including technical specifics of exploits.
  • showcases of interesting Custom Attack chains in real-world SDN projects.

Feng Xiao
Feng Xiao will be a Ph.D. student at The Pennsylvania State University soon. He enjoys hacking all kinds of systems as well as finding vulnerabilities. He received his B.S. in Computer Science from Wuhan University in 2018.

He has published three papers (including posters) in well-known security conferences like CCS, MobiCom, ICICS etc. He was also the recipient of First Prize in 2016 China Undergraduate Security Contest, First Prize of 2015 BCTF, and Third Prize of 2015 0CTF.

Jianwei Huang
Jianwei Huang is a researcher at Wuhan University. He is interested in finding and solving security related problems.

Peng Liu
Dr. Liu is a professor at The Pennsylvania State University. His research interests are in computer security. He has published a monograph and over 270 refereed technical papers.

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Privacy infrastructure, challenges and opportunities

Friday at 15:00 in Track 3
45 minutes |

yawnbox Executive Director, Emerald Onion

We started our own transit Internet Service Provider (ISP) to safely route anonymized packets across the globe, and you can too. Emerald Onion is a Seattle-based 501(c)3 not-for-profit and we want to help other hacker collectives start their own. Getting your own Autonomous System Number (ASN), managing Internet Protocol (IP) scopes, using Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) in Internet Exchange Points (IXPs), dealing with abuse complaints or government requests for user data -- this is all stuff that you can do. Not every technologist is comfortable with launching and managing a nonprofit organization let alone has all of the technical knowhow to run an ISP. We didn't either when we started. We had a goal, and that was to route unfiltered Tor exit traffic in the Seattle Internet Exchange despite National Security Agency (NSA) wiretaps in the Westin Exchange Building. This talk will cover high level challenges and opportunities surrounding privacy infrastructure in the United States.

yawnbox is the co-founder and executive director for Emerald Onion and has a background in network administration, datacenter operations, and security engineering. He has been running Tor guard and middle relays since 2010 and exit relays since 2012. Being a victim of domestic violence at a young age, yawnbox has been acutely aware of physical location metadata since the age of 8 and has been researching, publishing, and training at-risk communities about threat modeling and operational security since becoming a part of the Tor community. In 2013, yawnbox got involved with political activism through the Seattle Privacy Coalition, and in 2015 performed an internship with the ACLU of Washington where he helped roll out the first instance of SecureDrop in a non-journalist organization. In 2016, yawnbox was brought on as Tor Project's first full time Grant Writer but left shortly after.

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Infecting The Embedded Supply Chain

Saturday at 13:30 in Track 3
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Zach Security Researcher at Somerset Recon

Alex Security Researcher at Somerset Recon

With a surge in the production of internet of things (IoT) devices, embedded development tools are becoming commonplace and the software they run on is often trusted to run in escalated modes. However, some of the embedded development tools on the market contain serious vulnerabilities that put users at risk. In this talk we discuss the various attack vectors that these embedded development tools expose users to, and why users should not blindly trust their tools. This talk will detail a variety reverse engineering, fuzzing, exploit development and protocol analysis techniques that we used to analyze and exploit the security of a common embedded debugger.

Zach is a security researcher with Somerset Recon, a security consulting firm in San Diego. In this role he focuses on reverse engineering and web application penetration testing. In his free time Zach loves reading and long walks through the PE file format. Prior to working at Somerset Recon, Zach was a goat farmer in Maryland.

Alex is a security researcher with Somerset Recon, a security consulting firm in San Diego. In this role he focuses on hardware security and reverse engineering.

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Lora Smart Water Meter Security Analysis

Friday at 11:00 in Track 3
45 minutes | Tool

Yingtao Zeng Security Researcher at UnicornTeam, Radio Security Research Department of 360 Security Technology

Lin Huang Senior Wireless Security Researcher and SDR technology expert, 360 Security Technology

Jun Li Senior Security Researcher, Radio Security Department of 360 Security Technology

To avoid the tedious task of collecting water usage data by go user's home _ water meters that are equipped with wireless communication modules are now being put into use, in this talk we will take a water meter _which is using Lora wireless protocol_ as an example to analyze the security and privacy risks of this kind of meters_we will explain how to reverse engineer and analyze both the firmware and the hardware of a water meter system, we will be talking about its security risks from multiple perspectives , physical, data link, and sensors. Do notice that LORA is not only used in water meter ,it is being used in a lot of IoT scenarios_so the methods we employed to analyze LORA in this talk are also useful when you do tests of other LORA based systems .

Yingtao Zeng
Yingtao Zeng is a security researcher at UnicornTeam in the Radio Security Research Department of 360 Technology. He mainly focus on the security of Internet of things, car remote control systems and automotive radar safety research. He has found vulnerabilities in a variety of automobile manufacturers including Tesla, Buick, Volvo, Chevrolet, Toyota, Nissan, BYD and more. He has presented his researches at conferences like HITB, DEF CON Car Hacking Village, Black Hat Arsenal etc.

Lin Huang
Lin HUANG is a senior wireless security researcher and the manager of UnicornTeam in 360 Technology. She is also the 360 Technology's 3GPP standard SA3 delegate and a research supervisor for master students in BUPT. Her interests include security issues in wireless communication, especially cellular network security. She was a speaker at BlackHat, DEF CON, and HITB security conferences.

Jun Li
Jun Li is a senior security researcher at the UnicornTeam, Qihoo 360. He is the POC of DEF CON Group 010, and member of the DEF CON Group Global Advisory Board. His researches have been presented at conferences such as Blackhat, DEF CON, HITB, KCon, SyScan360, ISC, etc. His is interested in IoT security and connected car security. Along with his colleagues, has previously found several automobile vulnerabilities in Tesla, GM cars, Volvo, BMW, Audi, Mercedes Benz and BYD. He is the author of <<_________>> ("Connected Car Security Demystified"). He is also the co-author of "Inside Radio: An Attack & Defense Guide".

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Dissecting the Teddy Ruxpin: Reverse Engineering the Smart Bear

Friday at 13:00 in 101 Track, Flamingo
20 minutes | Demo, Audience Participation, Tool

zenofex Hacker

The Teddy Ruxpin is an iconic toy from the 1980's featuring an animatronic teddy bear that reads stories from cassette tapes to children. In late 2017, a new model of the toy was released with improvements including Bluetooth connectivity, LCD eyes, and a companion mobile application. While the new bear features a number of improvements, the Teddy Ruxpin's original ability to add new stories by replacing the included cassettes is no longer applicable, and it requires users to supply files to the bear in a proprietary format.

This presentation aims to show how the new Teddy Ruxpin was reverse engineered down to a very low level in order to create new content. I will reveal the inner workings of the hardware and software within the bear and document the process used to reverse engineer it. I will then examine the communication between the mobile application and Teddy Ruxpin as well as the custom structure of the digital books read by the bear. I will end the presentation by releasing a toolset that allows users to create their own stories followed by a demo showcasing the Teddy Ruxpin greeting the DEF CON audience.

Zenofex (@zenofex) is a senior research scientist at Cylance. Zenofex founded the which is a public research group that has released exploits for over 65 devices including the Amazon FireTV, Roku Media Player and the Google Chromecast. Zenofex is also a member of Austin Hackers (AHA) and has spoken at a number of security conferences including BlackHat and DEF CON.


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Demystifying MS17-010: Reverse Engineering the ETERNAL Exploits

Sunday at 11:00 in Track 3
45 minutes | Demo, Tool, Exploit, Audience Participation

zerosum0x0 Hacker

MS17-010 is the most important patch in the history of operating systems, fixing remote code execution vulnerabilities in the world of modern Windows. The ETERNAL exploits, written by the Equation Group and dumped by the Shadow Brokers, have been used in the most damaging cyber attacks in computing history: WannaCry, NotPetya, Olympic Destroyer, and many others.

Yet, how these complicated exploits work has not been made clear to most. This is due to the ETERNAL exploits taking advantage of undocumented features of the Windows kernel and the esoteric SMBv1 protocol.

This talk will condense years of research into Windows internals and the SMBv1 protocol driver. Descriptions of full reverse engineering of internal structures and all historical background info needed to understand how the exploit chains for ETERNALBLUE, ETERNALCHAMPION, ETERNALROMANCE, and ETERNALSYNERGY work will be provided.

This talk will also describe how the MS17-010 patch fixed the vulnerabilities, and identify additional vulnerabilities that were patched around the same time.

zerosum0x0 is the author of all MS17-010 ETERNAL Metasploit exploit modules and was the first to reverse engineer the DOUBLEPULSAR backdoor. He has taught workshops on Windows internals at DEF CON and to government agencies.


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Fasten your seatbelts: We are escaping iOS 11 sandbox!

Friday at 13:30 in Track 3
20 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Min (Spark) Zheng Security Expert, Alibaba Inc.

Xiaolong Bai Security Engineer, Alibaba Inc.

Apple's sandbox was introduced as "SeatBelt" in macOS 10.5 which provided the first full-fledged implementation of the MACF policy. After a successful trial on macOS, Apple applied sandbox mechanism to iOS 6. In its implementation, the policy hooked dozens of operations. The number of hooks has been growing steadily when new system calls or newly discovered threats appeared. In the beginning, Apple's sandbox used a black list approach which means Apple originally concentrated on the known dangerous APIs and blocked them, allowing all others by default. However, with the evolution of Apple's sandbox, it applies a white list approach that denies all APIs and only allows secure ones that Apple trusts.

In this talk, we will first introduce Apple's sandbox mechanism and profiles in the latest iOS. Then, we discuss iOS IPC mechanism and review several old classic sandbox escape bugs. Most importantly, we show two new zero-day sandbox escape vulnerabilities we recently discovered in the latest iOS 11.4. Besides, we share our experience of exploiting vulnerabilities in system services through OOL msg heap spray and ROP (Return-oriented programming). In addition, we discuss a task port exploit technique which can be used to control the whole remote process through Mach messages. By using these techniques, security researchers could find and exploit sandbox escape bugs to control iOS user mode system services and further attack the kernel.

Min (Spark) Zheng
Min (Spark) Zheng (twitter@SparkZheng, github@zhengmin1989) is a security expert in Alibaba Orion Security Lab. He received his Ph.D. degree in the CSE department of the CUHK. His research focuses on malware analysis, smartphone (Android & iOS) security, system design and implementation. Before receiving Alibaba A-Star offer award in 2015, he worked in FireEye, Baidu and Tencent. He was the champion of GeekPwn 2014 and AliCTF 2015. He won the"best security researcher" award in FIT 2016 for detecting the iOS/macOS vulnerabilities, XcodeGhost virus and WormHole RCE vulnerability. He is a member of the OverSky team for private jailbreaking development. He presented his research in DEF CON, HITB, BlackHat, RUXCON, etc.


Xiaolong Bai
Xiaolong Bai (twitter@bxl1989, github@bxl1989) is a security engineer in Alibaba Orion Security Lab. Before joining Alibaba, he received his Ph.D. degree in Tsinghua University. He has published several research papers on top conferences including IEEE S&P, Usenix Security, CCS, NDSS, and presented his research in Black Hat USA and Hack In The Box. He has been acknowledged by famous vendors, including Apple, Google, Facebook, Evernote, and Tencent for his contribution in discovering the vulnerabilities in their systems and improving the security of their products. He is a member of the OverSky team for private jailbreaking development.


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Your Peripheral Has Planted Malware—An Exploit of NXP SOCs Vulnerability

Friday at 16:00 in Track 1
45 minutes | Demo, Exploit

Yuwei Zheng Senior Security Researcher, Unicorn Team, 360 Technology

Shaokun Cao Freelance Security Researcher

Yunding Jian Senior Security Researcher, Unicorn Team, 360 Technology

Mingchuang Qun Senior security researcher at the Radio Security Research Department of 360 Technology,

There are billions of ARM Cortex M based SOC being deployed in embedded systems. Most of these devices are Internet ready and definitely security is always the main concern. Vendors would always apply security measurements into the ARM Cortex M product for few major reasons: 1) People will not be able to copy and replicate the product; 2) License control for the hardware and software; 3) Prevent malicious code injection in to the firmware. Vendors normally rely on the security measurements built within the chip (unique ID number/signature) or security measurements built around the chip (secure boot).

In this talk, we will share the ARM Cortex M SOC vulnerability that we discovered and it will be two parts:

The first is security measurement build within the SOC and how we break it. We could gain control of changing the SOC unique ID and write the firmware or even turn the device into a trojan or bot.

The second is security measure built around the SOC and how we break the Secure Boot elements and write into the firmware.

Yuwei Zheng
Yuwei Zheng is a senior security researcher at Radio Security Department of 360 Technology, core member of UnicornTeam. He is the core researcher of decryption blackberry project, which manage to decrypt Blackberry BBM, PIN message, and BIS secure mail without keys. He is currently focusing on the security research of cellular network, IoT system, and mobile baseband. He had presented his research works at top level security conferences like BlackHat, DEF CON, HITB etc.

Shaokun Cao
Shaokun Cao is a freelance Security researcher, a consultant of UnicornTeam. He is currently focusing on the chip-level security issues, such as microcode, ROM, bootloader, and firmware.

Yunding Jian
Yunding Jian is the co-founder of UnicornTeam. He is the leader of RocTeam in the Radio Security Research Department of 360 Technology. He is the designer of all pervious SyScan360 Conference badges. He also made serial presentations on Blackhat USA, Blackhat Europe & Asia (Arsenal) ,HITB about his hardware security research and design experience.

Mingchuang Qun
Mingchuang Qin is a senior security researcher at the Radio Security Research Department of 360 Technology,the core developer of Skyscan Wireless Intrusion and Prevention System,specializing in IoT and wireless device security. With rich experience in embedded system development, he is proficient in with WiFi and Bluetooth protocol analysis and vulnerability discovery.

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Politics and the Surveillance State. The story of a young politician's successful efforts to fight surveillance and pass the nation's strongest privacy bills.

Sunday at 11:00 in Track 2
45 minutes | Audience Participation

Daniel Zolnikov Montana State Representative

Orwell's concept of 1984 has more to do with government misuse of technology than technology itself. New technology allows for more opportunity, but unchecked, it allows for complete government control.

Representative Daniel Zolnikov is the nation's leading politician regarding privacy and surveillance and has enacted numerous laws safeguarding fourth amendment rights regarding digital communications and technology. Daniel will walk you down the road of how political misuse of technology can and will turn the Federal Government into an unprecedented nanny state that will lead to a suppressed free flow of information and fear of stepping out of line. His story includes insights on how unique left and right coalitions were formed to pass these laws in his home state of Montana, and how he prevailed against law enforcement groups who opposed implementing warrant requirements.

This discussion is aimed at sharing insights no matter your political affiliation. All of Daniel's legislation has passed with overwhelming bi-partisan support through both bodies in Montana's legislature and was signed by the governor of the opposite party. Although most speeches involving politicians tend to lead towards rhetoric, Daniel's goal is to share enough information to be able to understand why change has not taken place yet, and leave you understanding how to remedy that.

His story will give you insights into the politics that states and the nation face when reforming these issues, and his down to earth approach will bring the topic down to a level of humor and easy understanding. There is no need for any technical or political insight to be able to appreciate this topic and the work Daniel has done on behalf of the more technologically savvy enthusiasts.

The theme of DEF CON 26 would be inconsistent without taking into consideration policy and how it ties in closely with technology. Technology relies on policy, and policy has the implications of dictating the use of technology. The two can go hand in hand, or end up squaring up against each other. You are an important, and lesser heard voice in the world of aged politicians with limited vision. The Orwellian state existed due to a mixture of bad policies and technology. Although the theme focuses on technology used to disrupt the surveillance state, the other half of the battle is ensuring this state does not reach the disastrous conclusions of 1984.

Daniel believes we can move forward with technology without living in fear of our government. If you want to have some hope and direction towards the future of policy regarding surveillance and technology, Daniel will leave you with the optimism that there is still a chance that our nation can have a balanced approach that ensures 1984 does not become the norm in the future and will help you understand how to take part in this action.

Daniel Zolnikov
Daniel Zolnikov is a third term liberty-minded State Representative serving in the Montana Legislature. He is a been a strong advocate for civil rights concerning our freedoms and liberties, and limited government, and is working to make Montana the Last Best Place for future generations. As a 31-year-old representative who first served in his mid-20's, Daniel has specialized in 21st Century policy areas addressing the opportunities and risks associated with new technologies. Zolnikov has also lead on energy policy as the Chairman of the House Energy, Technology and Federal Relations Committee.

Daniel is the nation's leading legislator regarding laws protecting digital information and devices. In 2017, he passed leading legislation requiring a warrant for digital communication devices, warrant requirements for digital communications, limits on license plate readers that prevent the DEA from using Montana's information in their national vehicle tracking program and reformed and created strict limits on vehicle spot checks.

He has also successfully passed laws requiring government to get a warrant to access cellphone location information, passing the strongest Freedom of the Press legislation in the nation, protecting reporters' electronic communications from government intrusion, and give immunity from MIP laws to minors who seek emergency medical attention. He also helped lead the effort to revise Montana's outdated transportation laws to allow ride-sharing services like Uber to operate in Montana, which is expected to reduce the drunk driving epidemic in many communities.

Forbes ranked Daniel among the top"30 Under 30" policymakers in the nation, and Red Alert Politics recognized him as one of the country's Top 30 Conservatives under the age of 30. He has also received the Montana Library Association's"Intellectual Freedom Award", along with's"Advancing Alcohol Responsibility" leadership award.

Daniel is a strong advocate of transparency in government, and has posted his votes on his public Facebook page. He regularly interacts with constituents on his Twitter profile, @DanielZolnikov.

Daniel received his undergraduate degree from the University of Montana where he earned three business majors in Information Systems, Marketing, and Management, along with a minor in Political Science. Outside of the Legislature, Daniel has worked as a small business consultant and is currently obtaining his MBA. Daniel enjoys fishing, swimming, and the freedom that only Big Sky Country can offer.


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